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The Southern Region of Brazil has an area of 576,774,310 km², which corresponds to 6.76% of the national territory. It is the smallest of the Brazilian regions.
It is the only one of the regions that is outside the intertropical zone. The southern region is bordered by Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay.
Rio Grande do Sul map and border with other countries
The settlement of the Southern Region was marked by the presence of European immigrants, among them Italians, Germans, Poles and Ukrainians, who left marks of their cultures, notably in the architecture, cuisine and dances of the region.
Italian immigrants in the region of Caxias do Sul (Serra Gaucha) in 1911
The three states of the Southern Region and their capitals are:
- Paraná (Curitiba)
- Santa Catarina (Florianopolis)
- Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre)
Map of Southern Brazil
The wine industry has an important source of income for the region of Serra Gaucha.
Vineyards in the Serra Gaucha
Gramado and Canela, in Serra Gaucha, with low temperatures, are major tourist centers.
Gramado (RS) and the intense cold of Serra Gaúcha
The Southern Region concentrates an important industrial area, which extends from Curitiba to Blumenau in Santa Catarina, and another area that extends from Porto Alegre to the north, with the city of Caxias do Sul as its center.
Industries in the Southern Region (Paraná)
Textile Industry in the Southern Region
The state of Santa Catarina is the largest national producer of oysters and mussels grown in large aquatic parks (continuous physical space in the aquatic environment, delimited).
Water Park in Santa Catarina
The Iguazu Falls, formed by the river of the same name, with 275 waterfalls, located in the Iguassu National Park, in the state of Paraná, is considered a World Heritage Site.
Iguazu Falls, Brazil - Argentina Border
Aerial panorama of Iguazu Falls, Brazil - Argentina border
The Curitiba - Paranaguá Railway, located in Serra do Mar, built in 1808 in an area of Atlantic forest, is one of the most important tourist routes in the region.
Curitiba - Paranaguá Railway
Curitiba - Paranaguá Railway began to be built in 1880. The passage through this stretch gives the sensation of being flying, because the abyss is very high (Curitiba 900 meters at sea level).