Relief Modeling Agents (continued)


It is the action of volcanoes. We call volcanism the set of processes by which magma and its associated gases ascend through the crust and are released into the earth's surface and atmosphere.

The expelled materials may be solid, liquid or gaseous and are accumulated in a deposit under the volcano until pressure causes the eruption to occur.

The lava flows down the volcanic building, altering and creating new shapes in the landscape. Most of Earth's volcanoes are concentrated in the Pacific Circle of Fire, from the Andes to the Philippines.

Seismic Shakes or Earthquakes

An earthquake or earthquake is a sudden movement or earthquake caused by the abrupt release of gradually accumulated efforts. This movement propagates through the rocks through seismic waves (which can be detected and measured by seismographs).

The point of the interior of the earth where the earthquake begins is the hypocenter or focus. The epicenter is the point on the earth's surface where it manifests itself. The intensity of earthquakes is given by the Richter Scale, which measures the amount of energy released in each earthquake.