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Matilda Murray

Matilda Murray

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Matilda Murray

The Matilda Murray was a flame-thrower tank produced in Australian that arrived too late to see service in the Second World War.

The Australians produced a number of variants on the basic A12 Matilda Infantry Tank Mk II, under the general codename 'Circus Equipment'. The most successful of these was the Matilda Frog flamethrower tank. The flamethrower and 80 gallons of special fuel was carried in the turret, with spare fuel dotted around the tank. The flame jet was powered by gas pressure, and the biggest flaw with the Frog was the 20 seconds gap caused by the need to build up pressure.

The Matilda Murray was produced to overcome this problem. The gas pressure device was replaced with cordite charges, which eliminated the gap between bursts. The turret tank was also enlarged, allowing it to carry 130 gallons, enough for thirteen bursts.

The Matilda Frog saw some combat in Borneo late in the Second World War, but the Matilda Murray arrived too late to see active service.

A need for Firepower

In early 1943, a General Staff specification was issued for a tank mounted flame projector for use by Australian units in the Pacific. Plans were submitted for a cordite based flamethrower designed by Major A.E Miller, the commanding officer of the Australian 2/9 Armoured Regiment Workshop, but no action was taken to develop the design. A separate Matilda II mounted design utilizing compressed air propellant was produced by the Munitions Supply Laboratory under the designation of ‘Flamethrower, Transportable Aust No. 1 Mk I’. The flamethrower was tested but with an unsatisfactory range of 14-19 yards (13-17 m). In November 1943, a panel including Major Miller was formed to investigate potential new designs for a tank based flame projector. On January 7, 1944, a new requirement was issued for a flamethrower mounted in the turret of a Matilda II infantry tank, with the design to be completed by February 7, 1944. The working design was a cordite based flame projector refined from Major Miller’s original design, however, it required fabrication of components which would extend completion past the deadline.
Major Miller proposed an alternative design based on a hydro-pneumatic cylinder which could be fabricated from available components and was approved, with a budget of 250 pounds. The new system utilized an electrically powered hydro-pneumatic piston to generate pressure for the flame projector and a prototype designated ‘Frog’ was completed on February 21, 1944. The prototype Frog was tested on April 2, and a refined system was approved for production of 25 units. Major Miller was transferred to the Master General of Ordnance (MGO) branch to oversee design and production. The first tank was delivered by July 22, 1944, and successfully demonstrated to the Commander of the Australian Military Forces, General Thomas Blamey, at Monegeetta Proving Grounds on July 26. The production flame tank was officially adopted under the name of ‘Flamethrower, Transportable Frog (Aust) No. 2 Mk I’, but is more commonly known as the ‘Matilda Frog.’

Matilda Murray - History

Laura Towne was one of the first Northern women to go south to work with freed slaves. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on May 3, 1825, Towne later lived in Philadelphia, where she moved in socially progressive circles. She was educated as both a homeopathic physician and a teacher. She was also a dedicated abolitionist. Towne opened the Penn School, the first school for freedmen, while the Civil War was raging. As a white woman living and working among former slaves, she defied convention. Unlike most of those who went south at the time, Laura Towne made a life for herself on St. Helena Island, South Carolina, and ran the Penn School until her death in 1901.

In 1861, the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina fell to the Union army. Faced with defeat, the entire white population fled, leaving their homes, belongings, and ten thousand slaves. Towne arrived on the Sea Islands in April 1862, one of the first Northern women to go south to work during the Civil War. She participated in the Port Royal Experiment, the first large-scale government effort to help former slaves. The teachers who went south sought not only to teach the freedmen how to read and write, but hoped to help them develop socially and morally. They saw themselves as missionaries who would "bring the light of God's truth" to people they assumed were in need of such enlightenment.

Laura Towne exemplified this dual role, teacher and missionary, though with few lofty affectations. She was pragmatic, down-to-earth and strong-minded -- a born administrator. She readily entered into the life of Saint Helena Island, where she began her work attending to the medical needs of the freedmen. However, in June 1862, she and Ellen Murray, her life-long friend and fellow teacher, opened the first school for freed slaves. The school had nine adult students and operated out of the back room of a plantation house. This school was to become the Penn School, which Towne and Murray would operate for the next forty years.

Eventually, Towne gave up practicing medicine in order to devote all her attentions to the business of teaching and running Penn. Unlike most of the schools for freedmen, the Penn School offered a rigorous curriculum, modeled on that of schools in New England. Laura Towne spent forty years running the school and grew to love her life on the Sea Islands. She and Ellen Murray eventually adopted several African American children and raised them as their own. Upon her death in 1901, Towne left the Penn School to the Hampton Institute, at which time it began operating as the Penn Normal, Industrial, and Agricultural School.

Towne, Laura (ed. Rupert Sargent Holland). Letters and Diaries of Laura M. Towne, 1912
Hoffman, Nancy. Woman's True Profession: Voices from the History of Teaching, 1981

Applications Denied due to Intermarriage with Cherokees

NameRoll Number
Queen Watkins22168
Cyrus B. Gilmore22174
Francis B. Fite22175
William T. Culbertson22176
Ida Cobb22177
Allen H. Dykes22179
William E. Bozeman22182
John E. Adair22183
Cora E. Keys22184
George F. Privat22186
Myra A. Hickox22188
Elmeda M. Berry22198
John Hardy22213
William Wolfe22216
Minnie J. Archer*22218
Ada M. James22219
Samuel Duniphin22220
Rebecca A. Myers22226
Florida T. McCullough22240
Isaac J. Howard22241
Wesley B. Hillen22242
Vinica A. Harlin22249
Mary J. Harlin22250
Augusta L. Perry22253
Florence P. Muskrat368
Thomas D. Chatham22254
Zada Alice Jones22255
John D. Blaylock22257
William J. Wilson22258
Mary O. Jones22262
Mary Jane Barnett22263
Florence V. Monroe22264
Joel E. Frazier22265
William T. Crotzer22266
Sallie M. Pate22267
Benjamin T. Chandler22271
William E. Rowsey22272
Samuel L. Lane22278
Andrew Mathis22286
Mary E. Smith22288
Richard H. Crotzer22289
John F. LaBoyteaux22290
Martha Jane Riley22291
Franklin P. Milligan22305
Martha M. Vann22309
Alfred E. Holland22312
Hutchinson M. Robertson22314
Mary M. Barnett22318
Francis M. Branson22324
Joseph B. Lindsey22325
Stephen T. Lincoln22329
Lilly Thompson22333
John Wyly22346
James H. Whelchel22351
William H. Fern22358
Vada Alberty22364
William Hem22380
Daisie Williams22381
Cary A. Hatfield22397
Ellen Russell22402
Levi Lindsey22412
Alice Morris22413
Mollie Morris22414
Martha Foreman22424
Mollie Welch22425
Martha A. Langley22426
Laura E. Wilkie22427
Ola Pierce22430
William Maupin22431
Bessie Winton22432
Romeo Green22435
Mary Bryant22438
Isaac Pack22445
Seapearl E. Weaver22446
Victoria McCoy22452
Jennie Wilkie22454
George W. Scales22455
William M. Nellie22456
Isaac J. Vanmatre22459
Julia Ward22479
The A. Cates22480
Ida I. Brown22481
Maggie Mitchell22484
Alva V. Anglin22495
James C. Dudley22512
William A. West22514
John W. Shackelford22519
Amanda E. Foreman22320
John O. Treuman22521
William Odle22522
John L. Johnson22535
Ollie M. Fields22536
Augusta Wolfe22541
Carrie A. Adair22543
Robert W. Early22552
Samuel J. West22555
America A. Holland22556
Jefferson D. Jordan22557
Martha M. Adair22558
Harvey Panter22559
Susan Ketcher22562
Samuel L. Hughes22563
Sarah L. Bean22566
Mary E. Alberty22571
Green B. Callahan22576
Stella Adair22591
Mary Hughes22610
Sarah F. Wright22616
Essie Bigbey22624
John W. Blackwood22628
Charles P. Garrett22636
George Ferguson22638
John W. Hannah22639
Sallie C. Allison22640
Alice C. Thomas22643
Percilla E. Roberts22644
Thomas B. Johnson22659
Hiram B. Thomas22660
Georgie E. Morris22662
Myrtle M. Adams22666
John Fain22667
tare T. Keys22669
Sarah J. Keys22676
James W. Kelley22677
Nancy Crittenden22678
Fannie Clay22679
Charley Pack22680
Wesley D. Lee22681
Amanda A. Bruner22691
John P. Panter22693
Mollie Holland22700
Martha J. Keys22710
Pricie M. Miller22714
Kidder S. Barry22719
Richard H. Fouts22720
Euna Etta Benge22721
Martha C. Bruner22722
Mary J. Childers22728
John A. Keck22729
James T. Rich22731
Almira Ross22732
Lawrence L. McCrady22734
Mary J. Mitchell99735
William L. Copeland22743
Adam J. Lesley22744
Maggie Hampton22745
James B. Norrid22747
Mary Holmes22748
William Barnes22749
Martha E. Mitchell22755
Alice E. Hicks22756
Mary M. Hicks22757
Elizabeth Ballard22758
Thomas D. Hale22759
George K. King22760
Philip S. Winn22765
John McEachin22766
Mattie Linder22767
Henry L. Sims22774
Joseph Peters22775
William Beck22776
John W. Price22777
Alice Taylor22786
Madeline A. Vann22787
Mattie Ray22789
Minnie E. Ross22790
William T. Rush22791
Juland F. Hickle22792
John Warneke22793
John D. Cheek22794
Agnes M. Rider22796
Margarett E. Miller22801
Azlee Waters22811
Samuel J. Lessley22816
James W. Boydstun22817
Mary E. Whitsett22818
Mary E. Whitsett22819
Mary M. Carlile22821
Susan J. Faulkner22822
Jasper T. Earnest22826
Perelee Miller22838
Maud E. Foreman22843
Mollie Ellis55844
Thomas Heaton22848
Clara L. Ross22849
Asa C. Slatham22858
Henry Milink22862
Mollie L. Bruton22872
William P. Akin22873
Harrison H. Turnham22877
Effie Fargo22878
Sallie Crossland22882
Hugh Simpson22884
William Howell22887
Rebecca Ross22888
William Kidwell22889
Nancy A. Lee Thornton22892
Fannie S. Roberts22896
Samuel E. Morton22897
Elizabeth Garner22899
Ida M. Croslin22900
Johnie Collins22902
Amanda C. Mayfield22907
Sallie E. Bethel22908
Lizzie Gordon22911
Nannie Colby22917
Malinda Seabolt22921
William J. Redden22922
Tennie Lee22923
William L. Barnes22929
Phoebe A. Moton22932
James E. Trammell22933
Elizabeth Henson22934
Franklin M. Davis22935
John F. Patterson22937
Ida C. Seabolt22941
John D. Martindale22942
Charles S. Perry22947
Emma Patton22948
Orphea Moten22949
Mollie Henson22950
John Anible22959
William J. Robison22960
Lizzie L. Adair22962
Dressie Benge22963
Nancy E. Patton22064
Mary McKinney22965
Sallie Gann22966
Tennie Waters22971
William Parnell22975
Benjamin F. Noah22976
Beulah P. Ross22978
George W. Weaver22989
Zula Frazier22990
Richard Rogers22991
Willis McClanahan22992
Frank J. Hatfield22996
Mattie Terrill22998
Frank Wiswell23008
James A. Cash23020
Hiram H. Early23023
Eugene Witt23027
Fred W. Roe23035
Jesse E. Sangster23037
Albert Anderson23039
George W. Sumter23044
Maggie Maud Looney23048
Sarah Glory23052
Alexander Williams23063
William A. Scott23064
Thomas J. Cowand23066
Stephen J. Hart23071
Alice Wofford23075
William M. Brown93082
Mary J. Vann23090
John Kelly23096
Mary I. Bray23097
Frank T. H. Higgins23101
Lillie I. Cobb23102
William H. Marker23104
Eva Keer23105
Columbus Phipps23106
James W. Ashley23108
Martha L. Coodey23109
John W. Marlow23116
Sallie Brown23119
Allen Kearns23120
Hattie Irving23122
Joshua T. Carman23132
Lorenzo I. Lee23143
Emma C. Wicked23145
Ellen Crittenden23153
Bettie Nivens23154
Charles L. Bowden23155
Margaret E. McDonald23156
Dellia Burrows23157
Stella Sheppard23164
Eva Starr23165
James S. Fuller23167
William S. Perkins23169
Euretta P. Norman23171
Newton E. Hannon23173
Alexander Robbs23175
Frank P. Jones23185
Sallie Rattlingourd23193
Jacob C. Cobstill23199
Elizabeth Coleman23203
Frank Barthel23205
John Charboneau23212
John C. Wasson23231
Thomas A. Hathcock23239
Mary E. Barnes23246
Jimmie Petitt23247
Sewell T. Bell23249
Thomas J. Potts23250
Martha M. Mulkey23251
William Johns23253
James M. McClure23254
Hugh C. Crow23256
Richard L. Farrar23257
Samuel Rose23258
William G. Fields23261
Sarah E. Locust23268
AIexander R. Matheson23271
Cyrus A. Watkins23272
Jennie Kelley23274
John L. Dean23276
Mollie Norman23281
Sarah J. McClure23282
Oma Robertson23283
Valeria M. West23290
Robert Jackson23291
Maud P. Vore23293
Moses Anspach23294
Laura Sykes23295
Mary E. Conrad23311
William R. Shackelford23314
Mary S. Leach23315
Alice Hicks23324
Charles O. Karney23338
Ella Henry23343
Eva M. Rogers23347
Kibble T. Stovall23354
William Stiles23355
Edward M. Williams23356
John M. Cole23363
John R. Reeves23365
William D. Sanders23366
Philip W. Samuel23367
Vivalda Martin23368
Lionel D. Roberts23375
Ora Raper23376
Benjamin F. Teague23382
Vet Thompson23391
Lillie Clark23393
Stacy L. Whitaker23394
Lillie M. Ross23395
Rebecca Baugh23397
Flora B. Payne23400
Rachel A. Taylor23402
Jerry V. Haves23403
John C. Rogers23404
Daniel V. Jones23405
David B. Hadrian23406
George Dawson23407
Allen I. Fisher23408
Andrew J. Gibbs23409
Lydia B. Sullivan23410
Henry S. Prater23412
Lillie B. Cowan23413
Joseph Mayor23115
William Harlis23416
James D. Massey23128
John W. Nichols23429
Susie Drew23430
William A. Hancock23431
Martha E. Whitaker23434
Fannie Fields23435
Joseph F. Baker23442
Jesse King23445
William R. Fortner23446
Joseph Dawson23447
Brazzie Coats23450
Mattie Landrum23466
Mary Welch23475
Birdie Martin23476
Dora B. Taylor23487
Mattie H. Bean23404
Cornelia F. Vann23495
Manic L. Choate93502
Augustus M. Ward23503
Rebecca E. Choate23511
Fannie Sanders23512
Martha L. Rider23516
Thomas Allen23517
Moses E. Adkins23523
Hattie O. Williams23526
Ella L. Choate23537
Jesse J. Holleman23547
Marion M. Scott23548
Jay W. Linscott23549
John Scott23557
James Scott23565
Lewis Teter23573
Sadie Buffington23596
William T. Holt23605
George F. Camp23607
John F. Warren23612
James H. Mays23613
Jacob Dubois23614
Laura Wells23618
James N. Holland93621
Pearl V. Berry23624
Oscar L. Seabourn26226
Sarah E. Melton23640
Laura Jackson23641
Christopher C. Clepper23042
William A. Addington23643
Benjamin F. Fortner23644
James L. Cunningham23646
Henry Frellick23647
Frederick Propp23648
Jasper A. Plunk23655
James M. Armor23656
Lumina Still23657
Dell Hampton23659
Samuel Harrison23668
Adam Pfannkuche23677
Mary E. Ballard23678
Mamie A. Poison23684
William L. Felton23691
Samuel O. James23692
Emma Lamar23603
John T. Murphy23700
William G. Smith23701
Aquilla G. Robinson23702
James Shoup23707
Isaac P. Bledsoe23709
Sylvester W. Bond93728
Rosa T. Williams23743
Josiah T. Hardy23745
Walter D. Clasby23747
Verna Beck23748
Mary J. Weir23755
Enoch Frazier23756
Amos A. Chrismon23757
Charles A. Riddle23763
Thomas H. Brewster23766
Minerva Blakeney23768
Mary E. Risingfawn23772
Lewis L. Horsley23779
Ole Olson23791
William H. Morrison23792
Della Fields93793
Roe Rafferty23795
John C. Nelson23801
Amanda M. Purcell23811
Fannie Perry23819
Rosa Wood23821
Myrtle Adair23832
John W. Howerton23833
Joseph Potter23834
George W. Poplin23837
Edward M. Stanley23838
John B. Harrold23839
Tarleton Cray23840
Maggie Beck23841
Cynthia Dick23860
William R. Baker23861
William E. Curtis23868
Lorenzo C. Couch23869
Marie L. Chandler23870
James B. Hallum23872
John M. Sweatman23881
Marcus L. Butler23882
John E. Barks23883
Josie Rogers23884
Benjamin E. Christian23885
William F. Riddle23893
William M. Hancock23894
Bertha M. Marker23895
Fannie M. Large23896
John E. Hefner23897
Riley Barnett23899
John W. Harris23900
Joe R. Richards23901
Minnie M. Goddard23902
Andrew J. Thompson23906
Lemuel W. Marks23910
Nathan P. Wilbur23922
William E. Foster23923
John A. Chandler23924
Sarah E. Chamberlin23925
Isaac M. Hansley23933
Willie K. Franklin23935
William E. Halsell23941
Lewis P. Smartt23946
John C. Anderson23953
John H. Nall23954
Minnie Z. Nidiffer23956
Albert M. Clinkseales23966
John C. Gray23970
Ervin C. Baker93972
Othello J. Smith23973
Harriet M. Thompson23075
Nora N. Day23980
Andrew J. Kaiser23981
George W. Doty23995
Zipporah Duncan23996
John D. Sheeham23998
Samuel S. Cobb24000
Alice L. Gunter24003
Owen H. Haworth24008
Maurice M. Wright24009
Henry S. Hill24016
Belle Ketchum24019
Basil L. Nail24020
Edna J. Trout24022
Frank Ellis24027
William C. Wright24028
Effie M. Lamar24029
Charles S. McCombs24030
Callie Elliott24031
Ellie Cornatzer24052
Nathaniel L. Halton24060
Thomas T. Wimer21061
Samuel J. Burns21065
Mollie Doherty24077
David M. Marrs24078
Hiram R. Allen24079
Charles L. Merrell24082
Louella Cowan24087
Roxanna E. Ward24088
William T. Wade24089
Maggie Haff24090
Liberty E. Spears24091
Robert L. Murphy24092
Aaron L. Ownbey24099
Elizabeth Buffington24104
Bird Ballinger24105
George W. Tritthart24106
Sarah A. Dick24108
Robert W. Maddox24115
Charles A. Tyler24123
Joel T. Thatcher24125
Annie Ketchum24126
Winfield S. Maloney24127
Joseph E. Parker24129
William L. Markey24130
Nora Goddard24136
John Evans24137
Cicha Ballard24140
William C. Gamble24141
Letitia Chamberlin24142
Nathan M. Drake24143
John S. Thomason24144
Sallie L. Chamberlin24145
Cora Ironside24146
Ira Barnard24152
Samuel H. Conklin24153
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Elmer Creek24156
Ella T. West24157
William Gentry24159
Fannie H. Lunday24160
Marion Simerson24161
William R. Badgett24162
William Raines24169
George W. Fincannon24171
George I. Hopson24176
Madge C. Chamberlain24178
James L. Baker24179
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Belle Shouse24182
John S. Leforce24183
Della Barbee24186
James E. Wolfe24188
James W. Walker24189
Thomas Ward24194
Alzena E. Whitedeer24201
Sarah E. Collins24202
Annie Taylor24207
William J. Mantooth24211
Benjamin F. CockreII24218
Hattie Countryman24221
Libbie B. Starr24229
Mary A. Weir24231
Mack O. Gabbert24233
Sarah V. Chamberlain24939
Patrick Shanahan24240
Kate L. Craig24942
Timothy Shanahan24248
James J. Coyne24951
John C. Tucker24252
William R. Smith24953
Amos A. Martin24957
Nannie Walker24962
Alexus Lee24263
William I. Merrell24264
William D. Highsmith24266
Laura Gore24268
Cynthia A. Miller24269
Louis Frantz24277
William W. Miller24278
William F. Carter24979
Isaiah Hollis24289
John B. Miles24290
Richard Fitzgerald24992
James A. Jackson24293
George W. Dixon24294
James B. Walker24996
Peter J. Coyne24997
Cynthia Howdeshell24298
Benjamin Rowe24299
Noah Allen24301
Muzettie Coats24303
Maggie Fields24304
William C. Mayfield24305
Frank B. Brown24308
Silas G. Wills24310
Ida B. McCoy24311
Joseph A. Howe24312
Mary F. Paden24317
Madison F. Gamble24318
Ella McDonald24319
Mary E. Paden24320
T. Wyman Thompson24327
Arthur Horn24328
James A. Leforee24333
Mollie J. McCullough24335
Edmond A. Jackson24339
Samuel N. Calvert24340
Presley B. Kinnison24341
George A. Wright24343
Charles Schuth24350
John W. Jones24351
Sarah E. Mills24352
Edgar N. Ratcliff24358
Henrietta Prathen24360
Josie Hall24365
Frank Billingslea24370
Thomas N. Chitwood24371
Isaac Rippetoe24372
Julia A. Fields24375
James F. Slagle24376
William H. Whitney24398
Nora E. Craig24400
Dovie Suagee24401
Jacob Weinberg24406
Addie Fields24407
Homer A. Andrews24414
Thomas H. Cantrell24415
Eva Countryman24416
Burel J. Broaddus24423
Claudie Brock24424
Joanna Hall24425
Rachel Hicks24426
Fannie C. Brown24427
Lydia M. Anderson24430
Ida Muskrat24434
Etta Brown24442
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Ollie E. Williams24450
Myrtle Harlan24455
Frederic S. Barton24456
Nancy E. Wolfe24457
Henry Flanders24464
Andrew A. Barker24465
William T. Byrd24477
Charlie W. Eaton24478
Berry H. Ladd24479
William Johnstone24480
William R. Morgan24481
Jane Armstrong24483
Maggie Armstrong24484
Christina Tyner24491
Harold D. Lannom24497
John H. Johnson24499
Courtland C. Runyan24500
Belle Keys24501
Nora E. Sarcoxie24502
Fannie Patrick24503
Annie E. Halfmoon24505
William E. Heindselman24506
Ella Blythe24510
Artelia Gilstrap24511
Charles W. Costen24516
Charles A. Knipe24517
William Hall24518
Frank M. Overless24519
James H. Stokes24522
Emma Wilson24523
Ida Frenchman24524
Alonzo J. Everett24425
Eliza Wheeler24526
Washington J. Griggs24533
Agnes E. Shailer24536
Lucy F. Davidson24538
Mollie Parker94542
Frances Sarcoxie24543
Hattie Martin24545
Thomas Hoffman24548
John W. Coble21549
Ben J. Scoville24554
Ella Bible24556
Ella Morris24557
Edward Hamil24558
Henry J. Addington24559
Ella Bible24566
Malissa Morris24567
Charles White24568
Benjamin F. DeVan24569
William Nairn, Sr.24570
Daniel W. House24571
Minnie B. Allen24572
Charles A. Palmer24574
James M. Jolley24575
Ida H. McCaleb24577
Madison A. Cessna24578
Henry H. Oliver24579
William Beaubien24580
Marion F. Wilkinson24581
Maud M. Parrish24584
Lorena Parrish24585
John D. Raley24589
Zachary T. Fields24590
Sarah M. Sutton24592
John W. Foresythe24593
Edwin Z. Hiatt24595
William P. Ringo24596
James W. Jackson24597
Miller Woody24598
Nandy Rinehardt24599
William N. Riley24601
John H. McGrath46606
William N. Dodge24607
Mary Jane Foreman24610
Samuel L. Young24619
William E. Roberts24620
Charles C. McClure24621
Mary D. Walker24622
Benjamin R. Edwards24623
Lizzie E. Martin24624
John Strong24625
James E. Bell24627
Atlas P. Dunn24628
Clara Hurd24631
Belle Smith24636
James L. Hammett24638
Edward L. Halsell24639
Lottie Chambers24641
David E. Luton24642
Alexander F. Parsley24643
John Picaman24644
Charles W. Bradshaw24646
James M. Brown24652
George B. Stokes24653
Minnie F. Sutton24654
Annie C. La Hay24656
George A. Mitehell24660
May R. Franks24663
John H. Gibson24666
Beverly H. Thurman24667
Thomas A. Smith24668
Josephine Nave24676
William F. Pevehouse24683
Sarah M. Thompson24686
Charlotte V. Fry24687
Annie Davis24693
Maggie Sunday24699
William Calvert24704
Joseph H. Breeden24707
Hampton B. Stepp24708
Joseph L. Gibbs, Jr24709
James O. Roscopf24711
Marion A. Miller24712
Charles T. Grubbs24719
Robert F. Murphy24720
Jennie B. Taylor24742
Joseph M. Allton21743
Ollie O. Tiley21744
Martha A. Buster21747
Sarah C. Duck24748
Helen N. Bullette24749
Nannie E. Ward24750
William W. Bryan24753
William L. Walden24754
John T. Abercrombie24760
Mahala L. Tucker21765
John A. Poison24766
Huldah E. Bible24767
William McKenney24768
James L. Beatty24771
Robert L. England24774
Thomas D. Bard24775
David C. Harris24776
Annie C. Archer24777
Milton Thompson24778
Josephine Crutchfield24779
William G. Riggs24780
John H. McKeehan24782
Ples L. McLain24789
Jackson C. White24790
Ira Talbert24791
Thomas J. Ethridge24792
William It. Hornbuckle24793
Adolphus Peek24795
Zona Fry24796
William L. Harris24797
Sylvania Whisenhunt24798
William C. Stewart24799
Allie Howell24800
John T. Washam24802
James W. Watson24803
Mary J. Ross24804
Robert L. Comer24806
Jerry Rollens24807
Roderick D. Perry24809
lcy L. Cornwell24811
Mollie V. Allen24812
Susie S. Ward24814
Joseph Bridges24815
Ella N. Brown24816
Burrell M. Madison24817
Elijah Creech24818
Jessie A. Starr24819
Jessie Taylor24826
John. P. Marshall24827
Mary D. Bendure24836
Leona Fisher24841
Christopher C. Alloway24843
John H. Gibbs24855
Jasper Chaney24859
Bettie Bullett24861
Henry C. Payne24862
Annie L. Sanders24863
Minnie Davis24870
Frank J. Woods24871
William P. Hauck24872
Mead E. Hoffman24873
George C. Lloyd24874
Leoria L. Twist24875
Leona L. Stephens24876
Nella England24878
John D. Burgess24879
Joseph F. Blair24881
Maude Raper24883
Albert H. Collins24884
Hugh Brock24885
Mary Wallis24887
Thomas J. Pevehouse24888
Bettie M. Coodey24890
James M. Hamilton24891
James Murphey24892
William Lynch24893
Henry F. Carter24804
Jacob I. Harlow24895
Edward M. Logsdon24896
Frank L. Tague24900
John T. Brown24901
Maud Todd24903
Robert. A. Hosey24904
James C. South24905
Myrtle Taylor24906
Vicie Ann Phariss24908
Lenna Morris24009
George M. Miller24910
Loue Gott24911
Alien Kirk24912
Annie Duncan24914
Isabella Barnes24917
May W. Mills24923
Charles Noris24925
William J. Strange24939
Benjamin D. Pennington24940
William G. Milam24950
John N. Mosier24965
Jack Roberson24966
Laura R. Parks24975
William H. Moreland24976
William F. McSpadden24977
Emma G. Poole24979
LaFayette A. Byrd24984
Charles H. Hawkins24994
George W. Waller25001
Forest Guilliams25002
Mark F. Zulkey25005
Jolly E. Robinson25007
Laura Taylor25015
Susan Mayes26871

That said persons possess no right to enrollment as citizen of the Cherokee Nation other than by intermarriage, and that no one of said persons claims to have been married to a citizen by blood of the Cherokee Nation prior to November 1, 1875. The name of no one of said persons is identified on the Cherokee authenticated roll of 1880.

It Is Therefore Ordered And Adjudged:

That in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, dated November 5. 1900, in the cases of Daniel Red Bird et al, vs. the United States, Nos, 125, 126, 127 and 128, said applicants are not entitled, under the provisions of Section 21, of the Act of Congress approved June 28, 1898 (30 Stats., 495), to enrollment as citizens by intermarriage of the Cherokee Nation, and their applications for enrollment as such are accordingly denied.

Pauli Murray as a LGBTQ+ Historical Figure

One of five Pauli Murray Murals and Community Monuments in Durham, North Carolina located at 1101 West Chapel Hill Street. Credit: Face Up Project, Pauli Murray Center for History and Social Justice

Pauli Murray's personal writings about her gender identity and sexuality have been a recent topic of study. Gender studies scholars are now acknowledging that were Murray living today, she may have identified as a transgender man.

Because of this, scholars and activists differ in opinion about what pronouns to use for Murray. Throughout both the physical and online exhibition, the museum has decided to use she/her pronouns, keeping with historical precedent, and have identified Murray as she identified herself, in accordance with our language guide.

Pauli Murray wrote about her gender identity and sexuality throughout her life. In her journals, Murray wondered if she was "one of nature's experiments a girl who should have been a boy." Partially because of this struggle, Murray suffered breakdowns and was hospitalized throughout her twenties and thirties. Murray sought medical treatment and consulted doctors concerning what she called “an inverted sex instinct,” including asking doctors to test her hormone levels for any imbalance and attempting to find doctors that would agree to give her testosterone.

Pauli Murray A Youthful Spirit Mural and Community Monument
2520 Vesson Avenue - Durham, NC

Though Murray was married to a man briefly, she wrote “Why is it that when a man makes love to me, something in me tries to fight?” She fundamentally felt that she was a man trapped in a woman's body, an expression of gender dysphoria. Pauli Murray wrote less about her gender identity after feeling that her medical options had been exhausted and after attending Howard where she experienced the dual oppressions of sexism and racism in Washington, D.C. Alongside Betty Friedan, Murray was a founder of the National Organization of Women (NOW), and she wrote extensively about the importance of women’s equality under the law.

Pauli Murray True Community Mural and Community Monument
313 Foster Street - Durham, NC

Pauli Murray had at least two significant romantic relationships with women, though she resisted the term “lesbian.” She associated negative stereotypes with lesbians, and saw herself as a man attracted to what she called "bisexual" women, (or feminine women whom she believed were attracted to her masculinity). Murray’s longest relationship was with Irene Barlow, whom she met in the 1950s while working at a law firm. Murray and Barlow maintained a relationship and partnership until Barlow’s death in 1973. Murray was also thought to have a romantic relationship with Peg Holmes, a woman she met at Camp TERA, the women's equivalent of the Depression-era Civilian Conservation Corps, in upstate New York during the mid-1930s. Their relationship did not last very long, but they traveled across the country together.

Pauli Murray in the World Mural and Community Monument
117 S. Buchanan Boulevard - Durham, NC

Murray's experience resonates with many different aspects of the LGBTQ community, no matter how Murray is identified. During her lifetime, Pauli Murray was same-gender loving and had same- gender romantic relationships. Her writings indicate that she experienced gender dysphoria, which many transgender and nonbinary people also experience. It is important to recognize Murray as a historical LGBTQ figure and more broadly, recognize the contributions of LGBTQ individuals throughout history.

Pauli Murray & the Virgen de Guadelupe Mural and Community Monument
Formerly at 2009 Chapel Hill Road - Durham, NC

About the Pauli Murray Murals and Community Monuments
Five murals, pictured above, were created in honor of Pauli Murray between 2007-2009 as a part of the Face Up: Telling Stories of Community Life collaborative public art project in Durham, North Carolina. More than 1,500 people participated in a series of events that fostered new connections and dialogue, expanded awareness of local history, and lifted up the life and legacy of Pauli Murray.

The beginning

Yes, the glorious, 50,000-acre Lake Murray was a series of small communities back in the 1920s, but a man named Thomas Clay Williams thought that bringing hydroelectric power to the rivers in the Midlands would be a good idea. Engineers in South Carolina dismissed his ideas, but an engineer from New York, William Spencer Murray, saw the value behind this theory. The Saluda River Valley had a low elevation and no other permanent structures, like railroads, in the way. Upon visiting the site in person, Murray saw more than Williams did and had visions of a larger system that could generate more power at a much cheaper cost. From there, the project grew.

In 1927, the Lexington Water Power Company began securing the massive amounts of land it would need to begin constructing the lake and the dam. More than 100,000 acres, 75,000 of which were wooded areas, were purchased. This section of land included three churches, six schools, and 193 graveyards that contained 2,323 graves. Many of the families that lived on this purchased property relocated not far from the project, though some of the smaller communities and poorer people in the area suffered.

Over the next several years, heavy work began to clear the site. Approximately 2,000 men and 37 sawmills turned out 100 million board-feet of lumber from all of the trees that were cleared from the area. To keep work going as quickly as possible, a village sprang up near the project site to house workers. In 1929, the reservoir began to fill with water and the lake came to life, as the folks who used to inhabit the area watched their former homes go awash.

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" I loved the story I loved the way the author wrote Alienor as a woman of her times instead of a thoroughly modern independent woman, or a slut in chase of anything in pants. As with all Chadwick novels, there's also the added plus of being sucked into another century with the sights, smells and sounds that wrap up a darn-near perfect reading experience. I couldn't put it down, and very sorry I'm going to have to wait for the next installment. Reader from the USA

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"A rich and compelling read. " Candis Magazine

" I often see the expressions, `fleshing out the history' and `making it real', and they more than apply here. the main aspect that made me keep turning the pages and burning the midnight oil? The things that I didn't know about Alienor.." Reader from Australia

"Chadwick has succeeded where many other novelists have failed by giving us not just the legend but the very human young woman – intelligent, determined, witty and sexy." Pam Norfolk. Lancashire Evening Post.

Professional Tennis Career

Shortly after becoming the youngest British player to compete in the Davis Cup, Murray made his professional debut in April 2005. In 2006, with new coach Brad Gilbert, Murray beat top-ranked Roger Federer in Round 2 of the Cincinnati Masters tournament. Also that year, he defeated Andy Roddick en route to winning the SAP Open for his first ATP title. In 2007, Murray claimed a second straight SAP Open and also won the St. Petersburg Open to break into the Top 10 rankings.

Murray emerged in the tennis spotlight when he defeated Spanish sensation Rafael Nadal to reach the final of the 2008 U.S. Open, before losing to Federer. He ascended to No. 2 in the world in 2009, and finished runner-up at the Australian Open in both 2010 and 2011.

In 2012, Murray made it to the Wimbledon final for the first time with his semifinal win over Jo-Wilfried Tsonga. Murray&aposs victory made Scotland and the whole United Kingdom proud — he was the first tennis pro from Great Britain to reach the Wimbledon final since 1938. However, Murray lost in the final to Federer, who claimed his seventh Wimbledon win.

Murray avenged his Wimbledon loss at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, held in London, where he beat Federer to take his first Olympic gold medal. That September, he continued to burn up the courts with an impressive run through the U.S. Open field. Murray scored an impressive victory over Novak Djokovic in a tough three sets to clinch his first Grand Slam title, becoming the first player from Great Britain since 1977 — and the first British man since 1936 — to win a Grand Slam singles tournament.

After losing to Djokovic at the 2013 Australian Open, Murray made history that summer by defeating the Serbian player to claim the Wimbledon men&aposs singles championship. He was the first British male to win the tournament in 77 years and the second Scottish-born player to win Wimbledon since Harold Mahony in 1896.

Murray underwent back surgery in September 2013 following his loss in the quarterfinals of the U.S. Open. His performance was uneven for much of the 2014 season, though he made news by hiring former women&aposs champion Amelie Mauresmo to be his coach.

The Scottish player seemingly was back on track when he reached his fourth Australian Open final in early 2015. That March, he scored career victory No. 500 while competing at the Miami Open.

Murray followed with an impressive run at the 2015 French Open, battling back from a two-set deficit in the semifinals before succumbing to Djokovic. A few weeks later, he reached the semifinals of Wimbledon, but his hopes of advancing were cut short by theਊgeless Federer. Murray&aposs subsequent fourth-round loss at the U.S. Open not only thwarted his last chance for a major title in 2015, it snapped his streak of 18 consecutive appearances in a Grand Slam quarterfinal.

Murray began the 2016 season on a strong note, advancing to the Australian Open final before suffering another loss to his nemesis, Djokovic. However, he gained some revenge by defeating਍jokovic to claim the Italian Open in May and then sustained his high level of play through the French Open. With his semifinal win over defending champion Stan Wawrinka, Murray became the first British player to reach the French Open final since 1937. However, his bid to add another Slam title fell short when he wound up on the losing end ofਊ blistering Djokovic onslaught once again.

In July 2016, Murray advanced to the semifinals at Wimbledon after defeating Jo Wilfried-Tsonga. In the final, he upended Milos Raonic, the first Canadian man to make it to the Wimbledon final, 6-4, 7-6 (3), 7-6 (2). The victory was Murray&aposs third Grand Slam title.

The following month, Murray continued his sterling play by defeating Argentina&aposs Juan Martin del Potroਊt the Rio Games, making him the first male tennis player to successfully defend his Olympic singles title.


Matilda appears as a white anthropomorphic Chicken with the same appearance as in her toons version but with white feathered arms, as she is shaped more like a teardrop than an egg. Her eyes are now teal instead of black, her beak is similar to Chuck's, but the top of her beak is taller. Her black and pink feathers at the back are now large and has three feathers instead of two and has extra three black thin large feathers. Her black and pink feathers on top of her head is also large and gains another feather to make it three feathers and has an orange slippers.

Watch the video: Mireille Mathieu - Une femme amoureuse 1981 (August 2022).