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Our planet has several types of vegetation, which vary according to the region where they are located.

The vegetation species referring to each of these regions is defined by factors such as altitude, latitude, atmospheric pressure, lighting and air masses.

In the case of low latitude regions, there are the equatorial forests, such as the Amazon rainforest, in Brazil.

It is common to find this type of vegetation in hot and humid places. Its main features are the wide variety of species and the large leaves with a well-defined shade of green. There are also rainforests, located in the coastal intertropical range, which have smaller varieties of plant species, and types of life that do not exist elsewhere.

Another type of vegetation is the cerrado (or savannah), found in the Brazilian Midwest, part of Australia and central Africa, and the coast of India. This type is characterized by creeping plants and small trees that lose their leaves in the dry season.

We also have the fields or prairies, type found in regions of temperate continental climate, as occurs in the northern United States, southern Canada, northern China, northern Argentina etc. This vegetation is born where there is little moisture for tree growth, with only one herbaceous carpet known as grass.

There are temperate forests located in Canada, the United States and northern Europe, as well as coniferous forests in sub-polar regions, and tundra, vegetation that appears in icy soils. We will see below more characteristics of these vegetations.

Brazilian vegetation

Brazil has a very rich and diverse vegetation. We can divide the Brazilian vegetal landscapes in the following formations:

  • Forestry - may be broadleaved (eg Amazon, Mata dos Cocais) and aciculifoliated (eg Araucaria Mata).
  • Shrubs and Herbs - grass predominance (eg cerrado, caatinga and fields).
  • Complexes - have varied characteristics. They cover the Pantanal and the coastal vegetation.

We will study each of the existing vegetation in Brazil. First, however, we will learn how vegetation is classified according to different aspects.


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