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Soil fertility is measured by its ability to sustain vegetation, especially agriculture.
This depends on the pH, the presence and quantity of minerals, and especially the presence and amount of microbial life (humus).
A rich soil is one that presents the right group of minerals and water for certain types of plants.
The formation of horizons
Horizons are denominated the layers that the soils present in the course of its evolution. Gradually, under the action of biological, physical and chemical agents, the soil begins to organize in layers. Well-developed soil has four types of horizons: O, A, B and C.
- O - The organic horizon is made of plant material, that is, leaves that fall from the trees decompose, and remains of animals that also decompose. It is the superficial layer of the soils of forests and forests.
- THE - The horizon with well-decomposed organic matter is the so-called humus horizon.
- B - Mineralogical horizon with well defined coloration. It is a horizon of large accumulation of materials carried by the water of the horizon. THE. It has little organic matter.
- Ç - It's the lowest horizon, near the rock. It presents coarser granulation, is the horizon where the decomposition of the rock begins.
Ground Horizons Scheme