The story

A.E.G. R.I

A.E.G. R.I


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A.E.G. R.I

The A.E.G. R.I was a 'Giant' class bomber produced during 1918, but that never entered production, and suffered the loss of the first prototype.

The 'R' giant class bombers were the largest German aircraft of the First World War, and were designed for long range bombing missions with high payloads and long ranges. The most famous giants were built by the Zeppelin-Werke Staaken, but a number of other companies also produced 'R' class designs.

The two A.E.G. giants, R.I 21/16 and R.I 22/16 were ordered in 1916, in an attempt to take advantage of A.E.G.'s experience with twin engined bombers. A.E.G. produced a four engined aircraft with all four engines carried inside the fuselage. Power was transmitted to the two propellers via gear boxes and transmission shafts. This system caused a great deal of vibration, and so the four engines were placed on a massive engine mount which formed the heart of the aircraft. One engine had a Bosch inertia starter, and the other three were then started from the running engine. Early on each engine had its own radiator, but these were later merged into two larger radiators.

The fuselage was built with an all-steel structure. The wings had a mix of steel and duraluminum. The fuselage was covered with plywood from the nose to the rear of the engine room, and then with fabric.

The tail was unusual. It had a large horizontal tail plane, which could be moved a short distance up or down, and separate elevators, mounted five feet above the tailplane. Two rudders were carried between the tail plane and elevators.

The observer's cabin was in the nose, and had glass windows. It was accessed via a ladder from below, or from the engine room. Above it was a two man machine gun position. This cabin was originally semi-enclosed, but this was later turned into a standard open cockpit.

Behind the observer's cabin was the engine room, which was above the main landing gear.

The pilot's cabin was positioned behind the engines and wings, in order to improve his view during landings. To reach his cabin the pilots had to enter the observer's cabin and then pass through the engine room. There was room for two pilots, each with their own controls.

The wireless cabin was behind the pilot's cockpit. It had large windows on each side, and a ventral machine gun position in the floor.

R.I 21/16 was completed during 1918 and her initial tests went well. Engine ground tests were carried out on 23 and 30 May 1918. The aircraft made its maiden flight on 14 June, and flew for 27 minutes carrying a 1,190kg payload. Landing was difficult, and the aircraft had to be modified to move weight forward.

It was then decided to replace the propellers. The glue in the new propellers required ten days to be safe, but the increasingly dire situation at the front meant that the test programme was accelerated. After only four days the propellers were installed. On 3 September one propeller broke apart after an hour in the air. A transmission shaft broke loose and smashed the centre section of the aircraft, which crashed, killing seven men (including the person who had insisted on the test).

Work on R.I 22/16 was suspended after the crash and the aircraft was never completed. It was scrapped after the end of the First World War.

A.E.G. also worked on a number of other R-type aircraft, none of which got beyond the design stage. These included the monoplane R.II, which was to be powered by eight engines and a massive triplane that was developed by A.E.G. and Aviatik.

Engine: Four Mercedes D.IVa
Power: 260hp each
Crew: At least 7
Span: 118ft 1 1/2in
Length: 63ft 11 1/2in
Height: 20ft 10in
Empty weight: 19,8345lb
Loaded weight: 28,003lb
Max speed: not known
Climb Rate: not known
Armament: Up to five machine guns

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


Town of Smithfield History

Smithfield Historic Geographic Timeline
Past Smithfield Historic Preservation Member Michael Cavanagh did extensive research into the origins of settlement in what is now known as Smithfield, RI. His timeline contained here is based on primary research and is confirmed in the information contained in the new Smithfield Comprehensive Plan (History Section) that was coordinated by David Walcott and your Smithfield Historic Preservation Commission. This document contains some of the earliest history of the Town of Smithfield.

The Town of Smithfield Historic Preservation Commission maintains the Historic Inventory of Smithfield. This list is updated and edited periodically as the Commission researches these sites and completes street by street reviews of the Town. Residents are welcome to explore the Historic Inventory for research purposes. For all official purposes please contact the Chairman, Robert Leach at 401-862-5156.

If your historic home is not listed and you feel this is an error, please email [email protected] to suggest a correction.


A Brief History of Smithfield

National Exchange & Smithfield Savings Bank from an early postcard. Note the fireman and Greenville’s 1st fire truck in the foreground, center.

The Town of Smithfield was named after John Smith, “The Miller,” who was granted land by Roger Williams. Smith was one of the original party of six men headed by Roger Williams that formed the first settlement in Rhode Island. Settlement in the area to become known as Smithfield proceeded slowly during the 17th century. A limited number of pioneering spirits ventured from the nucleus settlement of Providence into the wilderness of the outlands. In the beginning, these peoples coexisted with the Wampanoag tribe who utilized this vast area for hunting and fishing. The Smithfield of today was called Wionkhiege. The King Philip War in the later 1600’s defeated the Indians and destroyed the unity of their tribal structure. The opportunity for a development pattern of increased white inhabitation was created.

The Smith-Appleby House, circa 1696, on Stillwater Road.

By 1730/1731 (1730 by Old Style Calendar – Julian Calendar/1731 by New Style Calendar – Gregorian Calendar in use today) supervision of the activities of the outland inhabitants had become “burdensome” to the parent town of Providence. Accordingly, the “outlands” were set off as three separate townships and became the communities of Smithfield, Glocester and Scituate. Smithfield comprised a land area of approximately 73 square miles and a population of less than 500 people.

The 18th century provided several important contributions to Smithfield’s development. With the incorporation of the Town of Smithfield, the institution of the town meeting began. Political structure of town meetings followed example set by parent town of Providence established in 1636 by Roger Williams and company. Adult male residents convened twice a year to vote on matters which in turn influenced town policy. One meeting was devoted to appropriating town funds and electing town officials. The other meeting was held for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Rhode Island General Assembly. The financial town meeting is still held today.

The Waterman Tavern as seen in an antique postcard.

The highway act of 1738 evidenced an innovative approach to establish links with commercial centers. Able-bodied Smithfield men over the age of 21 years were assigned to road construction details for a specified number of days of each year. Throughout the 1700’s, these roads helped to encourage travel through Smithfield and establish the many area taverns which flourished as havens for the numerous number of weary travelers as well as local centers for congregating.

The many watercourses located within the town were utilized at an early date for their assistance in industrial pursuits. The foundry industry of the Smithfield Farnums prospered to such a degree that proceeds from the family business built the Farnum Turnpike from Georgiaville to “Providence” (the Providence boundary of the 1700’s is the North Providence-Smithfield boundary of today) for the primary purpose of transporting their product to the commercial markets. Industrial pursuits of the early years demonstrated an enterprising spirit which was to become prevalent in the 1800’s.

Georgia Cotton Mill. Located in old Georgiaville Village, near Higgins St. Built in 1813, the mill was established by Samuel Nightengale, Samuel G. Arnold and Thomas Thompson as the Georgia Cotton Manufacturing Company. It was one of the earliest stone factories in Rhode Island. The mill contained 1,000 spindles to spin cotton.

Despite the innovativeness of a number of Smithfield individuals, subsistence farming continued to be the predominant occupation of most residents. Throughout the century, a decided lack of cohesiveness was apparent within the Smithfield community. The massive land area as well as the rugged physical landscape helped to create an attitude of separateness with no central unifying force except amongst residents living in relative close proximity to one another.

The values of the large Quaker population (also known as Society of Friends) provided a strong influence upon societal concerns of this period. Exemption of persons with “tender consciences” from the Revolutionary War draft, promotion for the abolition of slavery, and support for free school are but a few examples of this influence.

Politically, Smithfield supported the war effort and freedom from foreign domination, however, strong opposition was voiced relative to unifying the colonies into a single nation. Upon declaring July 4th a holiday, Smithfield residents declared their approval with the stipulation that such resolution did not indicate their vote for the United States Constitution. For quite a while, this feeling was expressed throughout Rhode Island nevertheless, enough votes finally were secured to allow Rhode Island to become the last state to ratify the constitution and the birth of a nation.

Georgiaville Grammar School 1896-1897

19th Century

General Store and Smithfield Town Clerk’s office. This large building was located on the corner of Putnam Pike and Smith Avenue and was a hub of village commerce and daily life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Oscar Tobey, the store owner, was also the Town Clerk from 1871 to about 1903 and the town offices were located here. The building burned in the 1920’s.

The 19th century served as a Golden Age for manufacturing in Smithfield and many other Rhode Island communities. During this period, old Smithfield was transformed from an agrarian society to a manufacturing center in Rhode Island. At the turn of the century, Smithfield possessed a population of 3,120 persons. Within the next 70 years, these numbers would increase by 430%.

Samuel Slater’s inventiveness in the harnessing of water energy for manu­facturing gave birth to the creation of the textile industry in Rhode Island. Smithfield’s numerous waterways provided a perfect setting for the development of this economy. By the mid-1800’s, Smithfield had become the cotton manufacturing center in Rhode Island. These mill operatives initially utilized laborers of WASP (White, Anglo-Saxon Protestant) descent. Very soon, however, Irish immigrants, and later French-Cana­dians became the predominant work force. Entire families including children as young as seven years worked in these mills.

Major new societal patterns of development emerged over the next few decades. One important outgrowth was the mill village. This type of village comprised a mill, mill store, housing for the work force, ancillary structures, and adjacent land areas, all of which were possessed by the mill owners. The mill village frequently was totally self sufficient and many residents never left the confines of the village. One of the first villages in Rhode Island based upon this concept was Slatersville, then a part of old Smithfield. Examples of villages existing today which developed upon this similar foundation are Stillwater, Georgiaville, Spragueville, and Esmond (previously known first as Allenville, then Enfield).

The Old Georgiaville Tavern. Built by Noah Farnum in 1840 – the building still remains, minus the porch, at 78 Farnum Pike.

The tremendous manufacturing productivity of Smithfield led to related strides in turnpike, reservoir, and railroad construction. Societal concerns continued to promote educational opportunities and slavery abolition as well as women’s suffrage and temperance. Mill owners often provided assistance in the successful accomplishments relating to these concerns by providing financial support as benefactors which lead to the cultural advancement of Smithfield society.

Politically, Smithfield citizens placed pressure upon state legislators for modifications in the system of representation in state government. Traditionally, allocation methods in state government were based upon the ­number of landowners rather than population counts. Positive reforms in this area developed finally as an outgrowth of the Dorr Rebellion. (Dorr & his supporters were defeated but a number of political reforms were still achieved.)

“The Water Witch” Greenville Fire Company’s hand pumper.

Within Smithfield proper, tensions grew between the various villages as mid-century approached. The lack of cohesiveness created by the physical landscape since the town’s incorporation as well as differences in economic, social, and political priorities created identity problems which only worsened as time went on. These problems eventually led to the division of the town into separate political entities.

In 1871, the old Town of Smithfield divided. Three new Townships arose – Smithfield, North Smithfield, and Lincoln (Lincoln later divided further into Central Falls and Lincoln in 1895) – while the northernmost area was annexed to Woonsocket.

The new Smithfield comprised a land area of 27.8 square miles of which 1.1 square miles involved waterways. The new population count identified 2,605 people and represented a population loss of 84% (1870 census reported 16,537 Smithfield residents). The new Smithfield included the greatest pro­portion of the old Town’s road system and retained four significant mill operatives. A new economy, the apple industry, soon would be introduced and eventually would provide the Town with a new identity as it undertook its “new” beginning.

Smithfield Exchange Bank $5 note issued July 4, 1848

20th Century

The advancements of the 20th century evidenced the transformation of Smithfield from a manufacturing center to a suburban community. Subsequent to the Town’s division, the population grew slowly until the 1950’s. At the turn of the century, Smithfield’s population was 2,107. Educational opportun­ities expanded steadily. An initial boost was obtained in the early 1900’s as the result of support from the local area mill owner benefactors who con­tinued to exert a considerable influence upon the community.

Esmond Mills Brass Employee Identification Badge, C. 1935-1940

Esmond Mills employees group shot, 1920. You can see the Esmond Blanket Bunny logo on the building. Click the photo for a larger version.

Georgiaville Train Station: Was located on what is now known as St. Michaels Way between Stillwater Rd (formerly known as Railroad Ave) and Whipple Ave. NYNH&H stands for New York, New Haven and Hartford.

In 1931, Smithfield celebrated its Bicentennial (200th Anniversary)
click the photo below for more from the Smith-Appleby House Museum

Smith-Appleby House Museum photo.

Throughout the early part of the 20th century, the apple economy grew. Smithfield would become known in Rhode Island as Apple Valley. Economic opportunities and pressures within the last few decades, however, gradually have allowed the formerly predominant orchards to succumb to suburban developments. Likewise, the textile industry has been altered in conformance with the demands of a modern society. Textiles in Smithfield continued to flourish until the 1930’s when the decline of the overall New England textile economy began. Today the structures which once housed the productive mill operatives have been modified to accommodate many smaller and more diversified industries under the roof of a single complex.

Apples at Jaswell’s Farm. The farm was started in 1899 and is now operated by the fourth generation of Jaswells. It is one of several long-established farms of this type remaining in the Town of Smithfield.

Within the last 50 years, Smithfield has witnessed a population boom of 308% (1950 Census – 6,690 persons/2000 Census – 20,613 persons). Until the mid-1960’s, Smithfield retained much of its rural character despite the growth of the residential areas. Construction of the Apple Valley Mall in the later 1960’s introduced the beginning of commercial expansion. Further encouragement was provided in the 1970’s by the construction of Interstate Route 295 which provided greater accessibility to and from the Town by both local commuters and out-of-town transients. The Smithfield sewer system built in the mid 1970’s has also stimulated increased development.

Today, the Town is experiencing continued growth. Fidelity Investments, the nation’s largest mutual fund company has located one of two New England regional centers in Smithfield. Smithfield is also the home of a division of Dow Chemical, Uvex Corporation, FGX International (AAi Foster Grant) and many other large and small companies. A regional shopping mall, “Smithfield Crossings” recently opened. The Town is also home to Bryant University, a top business school. Bryant University also was the location for the summer camp of the three-time NFL Super Bowl Champion New England Patriots until 2003.

Since 1994, the town has been administered under the Council/Manager form of government. Partisan elections are held every two years to elect five Town Council members who select a Council President. The Town Manager is appointed by the Smithfield Town Council to serve as the administrative head of the Town Government. The Manager appoints all Department Directors, except the Town Clerk (Clerk of the Council) and the Town Solicitor.

Largely combining rural and suburban lifestyles, the Town is predominately residential, with commercial and industrial use development along Routes 7, 116 and 44. Several major roads traverse Smithfield: Interstate 295 runs roughly north-south through the town. Several state roads cross the town in a roughly southeast-northwest direction – Putnam Pike (Route 44, Farnum Pike (route 104) and Douglas Pike (Route 7) – linking a series of villages: Esmond, Georgiaville, Stillwater, Spragueville and Greenville. These villages make up much of the town’s civic and social fabric, steeped in a New England town tradition. The Town is graced by a series of seven natural and manmade ponds, which provide recreation and natural beauty for its citizens. The town retains large undeveloped, heavily forested lands, including several active apple orchards and farms. A small state airport, North Central, is set on the northeastern border of the Town.

In the 250 years since its incorporation, Smithfield has progressed from a small agricultural community to an urbanized industrial center and finally to a quiet residential community. The accomplishments of many people over the years are evidenced in the fine community which Smithfield has become*.

This brief history of Smithfield was prepared by Jeanne M. Tracey in 1981.
It has since been updated by Bill Pilkington and Russell Marcoux.

*Apple Valley U.S.A.: In Recognition of 250 Years. by J. M. Tracey, 1980.

Thanks to Kenneth A. Brown, Sr. and James Ignasher for their contributions of pictures and information regarding Smithfield’s history throughout this website.

Links to More Historical Information

    The official website of the Smith-Appleby House Museum on Stillwater Rd. The house dates back to 1696. The website contains an extensive history of the Smith-Appleby House and the Town of Smithfield with several vintage pictures and many articles by local historian Jim Ignasher.

“The Smithfield Story” (1961) from the League of Women Voters of Smithfield-Glocester. This is a large .pdf document (32 pages – 14 MB). It is an excellent snapshot of the Town and its government in the early 1960’s.

Smithfield Exchange Bank information from the Historical Preservation & Heritage Commission and from the Rhode Island Currency website.

Some 18th Century Houses of Smithfield, Rhode Island from the Greenville Library. Lecture notes, with the accompanying volume of pictures, are revisions of an exhibit prepared by the compilers for the Greenville Public Library in 1964 and re-presented in 1985.

Information on the Town seal can be found here.

State of Rhode Island History from the RI Secretary of State’s Office.

Historical Cemeteries – There are 117 historical cemeteries that have been located throughout the Town of Smithfield. This link provides a way to search for a specific cemetery anywhere in Rhode Island: choose “Search for Cemeteries” or to search for the grave of a particular individual, choose “Search for Graves”.

Smithfield Historical Cemetery #37 – at the intersection of Pleasant View Avenue and Cedar Swamp Road. Photo by Jim Ignasher 2017.


Combinations

Definition

The different selections possible from a collection of items are called combinations.

The different selections possible from the alphabets A, B, C, taken 2 at a time, are AB, BC and CA.

It does not matter whether we select A after B or B after A. The order of selection is not important in combinations.

To find the number of combinations possible from a given group of items n, taken r at a time, the formula, denoted by n Cr is

For example, verifying the above example, the different selections possible from the alphabets A, B, C, taken two at a time are

3 C2 = 3! / (2! * (3-2)!) = 3 possible selections (i.e., AB, BC, CA)

Important Combination formulas

The number of selections possible with A, B, C, taken all at a time is 3 C3 = 1 (i.e. ABC)

Solved examples of Combination

Let us take a look at some examples to understand how Combinations work:


Problem 1: In how many ways can a committee of 1 man and 3 women can be formed from a group of 3 men and 4 women?

No. of ways 1 man can be selected from a group of 3 men = 3 C1 = 3! / 1!*(3-1)! = 3 ways.

No. of ways 3 women can be selected from a group of 4 women = 4 C3 = 4! / (3!*1!) = 4 ways.

Problem 2: Among a set of 5 black balls and 3 red balls, how many selections of 5 balls can be made such that at least 3 of them are black balls.

Selecting at least 3 black balls from a set of 5 black balls in a total selection of 5 balls can be

Therefore, our solution expression looks like this.
5 C3 * 3 C2 + 5 C4 * 3 C1 + 5 C5 * 3 C0 = 46 ways .


Problem 3: How many 4 digit numbers that are divisible by 10 can be formed from the numbers 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 0 such that no number repeats?

If a number is divisible by 10, its units place should contain a 0.
_ _ _ 0

After 0 is placed in the units place, the tens place can be filled with any of the other 5 digits.

Selecting one digit out of 5 digits can be done in 5 C1 = 5 ways.

After filling the tens place, we are left with 4 digits. Selecting 1 digit out of 4 digits can be done in 4 C1 = 4 ways.

After filling the hundreds place, the thousands place can be filled in 3 C1 = 3 ways.


Historie [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

Původní Německou Edisonovu společnost (Deutsche Edison Geselschaft) založil Emil Rathenau v roce 1883 v Berlíně. V roce 1887 byla společnost změněna na Všeobecnou elektrotechnickou společnost (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft / AEG), která v roce 1903 připojila berlínskou Spojenou elektrotechnickou společnost (Union Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft / Union). AEG-Union založila filiálku ve Vídni, která společně s bankovním koncernem Rakouský ústav pro pozemkový úvěr a Rakouský úvěrní ústav pro obchod a průmysl, založila v roce 1911 Rakouskou akciovou společnost na dodání elektřiny (Oesterreichischen Elektrizitäts- Lieferungs-Aktien-Gesellschaft / OELAG) ve Vídni. Společnost AEG-Union podporovala prostřednictvím OELAG [p. 1] zakládání a provoz elektráren, kam dodávala své technické zařízení, především generátory. Ώ]

V roce 1911 uvedla společnost A.E.G. Union do provozu tramvajovou trať v Těšíně. Byla v provozu až do roku 1921, kdy z důvodu rozdělení města mezi Československo a Polsko byly zavedeny hraniční kontroly, které znemožnily provoz.

Auta [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

AEG koupila Kühlstein v roce 1902 a založila divizi Neue Automobil Gesellschaft (New Automobile Company), k výrobě aut. AEG zanechala výrobu aut v roce 1908. ΐ]

Elektrifikace železnice [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

Začátkem 20. století AEG dodávala zařízení pro londýnskou oblast Railway electrification system Velké Británie.

Letadla [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

AEG vyráběla řadu modelů letadel v letech 1910-1918. Jedno z navržených a postavených letadel byl dvouplošný bombardér AEG R.I. Tento letoun byl poháněn čtyřmi motory Mercedes D.IVa o výkonu 260 koňských sil. První let prototypu byl nadějný, ale 3. září 1918 se letadlo porouchalo a při nehodě zahynulo sedm členů posádky.

Elektronika [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

Koncem 20. let 20. století inženýři z AEG spolupracovali s firmou BASF, divizí chemického giganta IG Farben, a vytvořili první použitelnou magnetickou pásku. Magnetofonový kazetový přehrávač, K1 Magnetofon, byl poprvé představen v roce 1938 na Rádio veletrhu v Berlíně.

Sloučení - rozdělení firmy [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

V roce 1967 se AEG spojilo s firmou Telefunken a v roce 1969 začaly společně spolupracovat s firmou Siemens AG. V roce 1985 byla AEG koupena firmou Daimler-Benz. Divize domácích spotřebičů byla odprodána firmě Electrolux v roce 1996. Divize transportní techniky byla sloučena pod firmu ADtranz, která byla poté později prodána firmě Bombardier.

Později byla celá firma AEG integrována do společnosti DaimlerChrysler a v roce 1997 byla AEG rozdělena. V roce 2005 koupil Electrolux obchodní jméno AEG. V dnešní době několik částí původní firmy stále existuje a používají i nadále značku AEG.


First Responders Outreach

September 11, 2001, shook our nation in a way we will never forget. The heroism by our first responders who selflessly ran towards the danger, when everyone else was running away, left a lasting impression on Gary. In response to that heartbreaking day, military men and women were deploying to the frontlines of Iraq and Afghanistan. Inspired by their selfless service, Gary volunteered for his first of many USO tours - his personal mission of thanking the military members answering the call to duty. It was during this first tour that Gary met former Marine and retired FDNY Captain John Vigiano.

Vigiano lost both of his sons, one a police officer, the other a firefighter, in the collapse of the World Trade Center. John's unimaginable story deeply affected Gary. The two soon became close friends and John invited him to tour a New York City firehouse when they returned. Impacted by the visit and his friendship with John, Gary began supporting the FDNY, to include helping build the Brooklyn Wall of Remembrance, a memorial in honor of every first responder who died in NYC on 9/11. With a passion to honor the sacrifices made by our police officers, firefighters, and EMTs, Gary included first responders in the mission statement of the Gary Sinise Foundation. And in 2015, the Foundation established its official First Responders Outreach to serve these heroes and their families every day.

John Vigiano passed away on July 7, 2018 at the age of 79. He will long be remembered as Gary's dear friend and the early inspiration for this important program.


R.I.'s jewelry industry history in search of a permanent home

CRANSTON&mdash The Providence Jewelry Museum isn&rsquot easy to find. It&rsquos on a dead end street in Cranston, not Providence. There are no visitor-friendly signs directing tourists to the front door it&rsquos open by appointment only.

But the nonprofit museum, with an office in Providence, houses a big part of the state's industrial past: 50 Providence-made machines, 200 pieces of jewelry and 20,000 company samples spanning more than two centuries of jewelry making.

&ldquoWe made everything,&rdquo from watch fobs and cuff links to tiaras and mood rings, says museum director Peter DiCristofaro.

The men and women who made the machines and jewelry were "unknown Michelangelos," he says. He points to a mold in the darkened museum. "A work of art."

For nearly 40 years DiCristofaro has been looking for a permanent home for his sprawling collection.

Two unlikely institutions &mdash the City of Harrisonburg and James Madison University, both in Virginia &mdash are interested in the old machines, gem stones and tools, he says. They envision a museum in the heart of the Shenandoah Valley, some 540 miles from Providence.

DiCristofaro would like the collection to stay local. After all, he says, Providence was the epicenter of the early jewelry industry.

In 1794, Seril Dodge opened a jewelry store on North Main Street in Providence. And Nehemiah Dodge developed a process for coating lesser metals with gold and silver. Historians say they two men started Rhode Island&rsquos jewelry industry.

By 1890, there were more than 200 firms with almost 7,000 workers in Providence. A demand for inexpensive jewelry and a growing immigrant labor force fueled that growth for another 100 years.

&ldquoIt was an immigrant business,&rdquo says DiCristofaro, one where Jewish merchants worked with Italian designers. &ldquoThey worked hard, they were talented and they were ahead of the curve.&rdquo

By the 1960s, trade magazines were calling Providence &ldquothe jewelry capital of the world.&rdquo

"You had the counterculture, birth control &mdash and pierced earrings," DiCristofaro says. "In the '70s you had disco jewelry and in the '80s you had big hair and big jewelry."

It didn't last. Foreign companies used cheap labor to compete with local companies. And fashions changed. Many Rhode Island companies went out of business from the late 1970s through the early 1990s.

As as a broker and workout specialist, DiCristofaro picked up the pieces. He represented more than 100 troubled companies and collected jewelry, machines and other items in the process. &ldquoWe were earning money for banks and breaking up factories,&rdquo he says. &ldquoWe were building a business off the body parts of other businesses.&rdquo

Companies are still making jewelry in Rhode Island &mdash look at Alex and Ani &mdash but now they are selling brands rather than lines, he says.

DiCristofaro opened the museum in 1983. Since then, he has considered a number of locations for his museum: an elementary school, the Convention Center and the failed Heritage Harbor Museum.

Now in his early 60s, he isn't sure how much longer he will run the museum.

Still, he can't let go of the past.

In the 1970s, he went to the University of Rhode Island to become a pharmacist. In the summers he worked with an uncle, the owner of Salvadore Toll Co. He switched career paths. "I loved jewelry."

An uncle showed him how to make molds.

&ldquoSomeone&rsquos going to want to know this in the future,&rdquo his uncle told him.


Two prominent R.I. families, Champlins and Stantons, had slave labor in 1700s Charlestown

CHARLESTOWN &mdash A walk through woods on the edge of Ninigret Park brings two historians and an artist who share a keen interest in 1700s slave labor to a small cemetery surrounded by stone walls.

Few but these three know it is there.

Here lie buried members of the Champlin family, wealthy merchants and farmers who imported slaves to Newport, then used them on their coastal plantation, which occupied about 2,000 of acres on what is now athletic fields and a national wildlife refuge, and which originally was Narragansett Indian territory &mdash and then, in the 1940s, a Naval Air Station where President George H. W. Bush trained to be an aviator in World War II.

&ldquoIn Memory of Joshua Champlin, who died March 20, 1826, in the 63rd year of his age,&rdquo reads the inscription on one large tombstone.

&ldquoJ. C.&rdquo is the entire etching on a second.

Time has worn away inscriptions on other stones, and centuries of accumulating leaves and soil have consigned still more to oblivion. Certain stones, small to begin with, have no names or other features that might provide insight into who lies beneath.

Could slaves from Africa or the West Indies be buried here, too?

&ldquoThey had to be buried somewhere,&rdquo said society vice president Alan Angelo.

Artist Ana Flores nodded in agreement. Together with Lyons, Angelo, the Cross&rsquo Mills Public Library and the Brown University Center for Slavery and Justice, Flores is a main participant in an initiative called &ldquoIlluminating History: An Exploration of the History of Slavery in South County, Rhode Island.&rdquo The goal is publicly presenting a chapter of a shameful past.

If the Champlin name sounds familiar, that&rsquos because one member of the family, Stanton Browning Champlin, amassed a manufacturing fortune in the 1800s that became the basis for the Champlin Foundation, today one of Rhode Island&rsquos leading philanthropies, known for its contributions to libraries, social services, conservation, the arts and other causes.

&ldquoWe are proud to provide support for hundreds of non-profits in Rhode Island so they can focus on their mission,&rdquo the foundation states on its website.

The graveside conversation turned to the name &ldquoStanton&rdquo &mdash not Stanton Browning Champlin, but Joseph Stanton Jr., a colonel in the Revolutionary War, a delegate to the 1790 Rhode Island Constitutional Convention and one of the first two U.S. senators from the state (the other was Theodore Foster, for whom the Rhode Island town is named).

Like the Champlins, the Stantons used slave labor on their neighboring plantation, which also encompassed about 2,000 acres. A graveyard without tombstones is situated there, adjacent to a monument alongside the southbound lane of Route 1, or Post Road, which in horse-drawn times connected Providence and points north to Westerly and beyond.

&ldquoWe do know from documents that slaves were buried there,&rdquo Lyons said.

The monument memorializes Stanton, who was born in 1739 and died in 1821, but makes no mention of the Stantons&rsquo slave legacy &mdash nor one of the senator's accomplishments, perhaps a sort of penance for family sins.

&ldquoGeneral Joseph Stanton actually helped establish the Providence Abolitionist Society with Brown,&rdquo Lyons said.

Overlooking the monument is the house where Stanton was born.

&ldquoIt&rsquos now called the Wilcox Tavern,&rdquo Lyons said. "It was initially a Stanton home. They built it in 1730 and their plantation looked out all the way down to the water.&rdquo

&ldquoUnrighteous Traffick,&rdquo a 2006 Journal series, documented the history of slavery in Rhode Island. One chapter, &ldquoPlantations in the North: The Narragansett Planters,&rdquo explored the farms that Champlins, Stantons and others operated in South County. Cleared of trees, flat, rich with salt-marsh hay and blessed with ocean breeze, coastal Charlestown provided an ideal environment for agriculture.

"Relying on slave labor, the so-called Narragansett Planters raised livestock and produced surplus crops and cheese for Newport&rsquos growing sea trade,&rdquo wrote series author Paul Davis. &ldquoThe slaves, brought by Newport merchants from the West Indies and later Africa, cut wheat, picked peas, milked cows, husked corn, cleaned homes and built the waist-high walls that bisected the fields and hemmed them in.&rdquo

How many slaves labored in the area?

Tallying a precise total is an elusive, probably impossible, task, given 18th-century record-keeping and the loss over time of some of the records, but an April 1933 research article in The Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society attempted a calculation.

For the year 1749, in Charlestown 58 &ldquoNegroes&rdquo were listed, with 380 in South Kingstown and 184 in North Kingstown, &ldquothe three principal Planter townships.&rdquo

The article declared that &ldquothere is every evidence&rdquo that slaves &ldquowere well treated by their masters, cared for, not only by them, but by the churches, who baptized them and admitted them to communion &mldr many were given their freedom, although possibly often because of old age, a rather brutal device to obviate the expense of maintenance of an old and useless slave.&rdquo

Lyons turned emotional imagining what happened centuries ago.

&ldquoI think about the suffering,&rdquo she said. &ldquoThey come on a ship, they land in Newport, they don&rsquot know where they&rsquore going and they&rsquore separated from their children. They arrive at this big plantation and they don't know anybody or anything and they begin to work.&rdquo

The &ldquoIlluminating History&rdquo initiative involves examination of documents found in Charlestown, and also through Brown University, the Newport Historical Society and the Rhode Island Historical Society, among other sources.

Come spring, Lyons, Angelo and Flores will head a team of volunteers who will clear trees, fallen limbs, underbrush and brambles from the Champlin cemetery, and where possible, uncover earth and debris that cover some stones. Clues may be uncovered regarding who else is buried in the Champlin lot.

Even should that prove the case, the names, ages, hopes and travails, and other life circumstances of the people who arrived in chains to work on farms that enriched white owners will almost certainly remain lost forever.

But because of people dedicated to Black history, the fact of their existence will not.


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有限群論序論

代数学入門のに関する項である。Wikipediaの方にも詳細な記述があるが、百科事典という性格上、個々の例について深い解説を与えることはできない。 ここでは、初学者でもわかりやすいよう、個々の例について深い解説を与えながら見ていこうと思う。

任意の2つの整数の足し算は、整数になる。つまり、足し算は、整数の集合上の二項演算である。一方、整数の割り算は二項演算ではない。1÷2=1/2は整数ではないから、整数は割り算について閉じていない。

代数構造の例

結合則と半群

代数構造(G,·)があるとする。このとき、結合則とは、次のルールのことをいう。

a,b,cGについて、 a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c

結合則が成り立つ代数構造のことを、半群(semi group)という。 半群とは集合 S と二項演算 "•" の組 (S, •) であって、二項演算 • が以下の条件

演算が閉じている S の各元 a, b に対して、演算結果 ab は再び S に属する。 結合律 S の各元 a, b, c に対して、等式 (ab) • c = a • (bc) が満たされる。

結合則が成り立つ例

自然数の集合をN、足し算を + とする。 代数構造(N,+)について、結合則が成り立つことは、直感的に明らかだろう。

例えば、6 + ( 3 + 2 ) = ( 6 + 3 ) + 2 = 11

これを、あえて証明したいと思った場合は、まず、すべての自然数が、1+1+1+. +1 の形に書けることを示し、次に、1+1+. +1 の列に対して、結合則が成り立つことを示せばよい。

結合則が成り立たない例

自然数の集合をN、引き算を − とする。 代数構造(N,−)について、結合則は成り立たない。

なぜなら、6 − ( 3 − 2 ) = 6 − 1 = 5 であるのに対し、( 6 − 3 ) − 2 = 3 − 2 = 1 であるから、6 − ( 3 − 2 ) ≠ ( 6 − 3 ) − 2

単位元とモノイド

もう一つ、単位元というものを考えてみよう。 代数構造(G,·)があるとする。このとき、単位元とは、次のような元をいう。

eGがあって、∀ xGについて、 e · x = x · e = x となるとき、e単位元(identity element)という。

結合則が成り立ち、単位元が存在する代数構造(G,·)を、モノイド(monoid)という。

単位元がない場合

自然数の集合ということは、1以上の整数であるから、0は含まないので、この場合、代数構造(N,+)には、単位元がないことになる。

単位元がある場合

xNに対して、 x + 0 = 0 + x = x

そして、Nに<0>を加えた集合、N ∪ <0>を考える。 このとき、ようやく、足し算に単位元ができて、代数構造(N ∪ <0>,+)には、単位元があることになる。

いわゆる、インドにおける0の発見とは、まさしくこのことである。それまでの、単位元のなかった足し算に、0という単位元を導入する作業が、0の発見であったといえる。

さて、ようやくの話題にうつろう。群とは、モノイドにさらにもう一つ逆元というものを導入した代数構造である。

今、代数構造(G,·)があり、Gには単位元eGが定義されているとする。

あるxGに対する逆元x −1 とは、 x · x −1 = x −1 · x = e となるようなx −1 ∈ Gのことである。

逆元が存在しない例

自然数の集合をN、足し算を+とする。自然数の集合に単位元0を加えた代数構造 (N ∪ <0>, +) について考える。

このとき、どのようなkNをとってきたとしても、

k + x = x + k = 0

となるようなxは負の数になってしまうため、xN ∪ <0>であり、 0 以外のすべての元について逆元は存在しない。

さて、群とは、任意の元について逆元の定義されたモノイドだった。すなわち、まとめると、次の1から3を満たす代数構造(G,·)を群と呼ぶ。

1.単位元の存在 あるeGがあって、∀ x ∈ Gに対して、 e · x = x · e = x が成り立つ。

2.逆元の存在 ∀ xGに対して、∃ x −1 ∈ Gが存在して、 x · x −1 = x −1 · x=e

3.結合則 ∀ a,b,cGに対して、 a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c が成り立つ。

4.交換法則 ∀ a,bG に対してa · b=b · a

が成り立つ群を特に可換群(commutative group)またはアーベル群(abelian group)という。

群に関する基本的な定理

単位元の一意性

単位元が存在すれば、それは代数構造(G,·)の中にただ一つ存在する。

e,e’ ∈ Gを単位元とし、ee’とする。

xGに対して、x · e = e · x = x

yGに対して、y · e’ = e’ · y = y

xは任意だから、x=e’,y=eとおいてもよいので、そうおけば、 e’ · e = e = e

故に、単位元eGは、存在すれば、ただ一つ存在する。

逆元の一意性

群(G,·)について考える。 元xGに対する逆元x −1 もまた、存在すればGの中にただ一つ存在する。

xGの逆元が二つあったと仮定し、それらをabとおく。 a,bGかつabである。逆元の定義から

が成り立つ。このとき、Gは群だから、結合則が成り立つことに注意すると

よって、a=b。これは、abに反す。矛盾。

よって、群Gについて、xの逆元があれば、xの逆元は一意。

逆元の逆元は、もとの元

群(G,·)について考える。 xGの逆元x −1 があるとき、xの逆元の逆元、すなわち、(x −1 ) −1 =xである。

x · x −1 = x −1 · x=e

である。これはxの逆元がx −1 であることを示しているが、同時にx −1 の逆元がxであることを示しているとも取ることができる。

(x −1 ) −1 を考えると、(x −1 ) −1 はx −1 の逆元であるから、

x −1 · (x −1 ) −1 =e

が成り立つ。先ほど示したように、逆元の一意性より、x −1 の逆元は存在すればただ一つである。(x −1 ) −1 もxも、x −1 の逆元であるということは、

Gが与えられたとき、群Gの部分群HGとは、集合として、HGであり、なおかつ、Hが群であるものを指す。

aH , bHa · bH

aHa -1 ∈ H

ただし、eは、Hの単位元である。

簡単に証明できる事柄として、Gの単位元とHの単位元は一致する。なぜなら、Gの単位元をeGとすれば、∀ aHに対して、

eG · a = a · eG = a

が成り立つ。これは、eGHの単位元であることも示しており、Hは群だから、単位元を含むので、eGH

Gの空でない部分集合Hが部分群あるための必要十分条件は

aH , bHa · b -1 ∈ H

必要性は明らかだろう。十分性は以下のように示される。aHとすると、条件より、a · a -1 = eHである。 よってaHかつeHなので、 条件よりe · a -1 = a -1 ∈ Hである。最後に、aH , bHとすると、bHよりb -1 ∈ Hなので、a · ( b -1 ) -1 = a · bH。よってHGの部分群である。

生成元と巡回群

Gの部分集合Sは、一般に部分群になるとは限らない。しかし、Sの元とその逆元をいくつか掛け合わせた元全体、すなわち

ただ一つの元からなる生成系を持つ群を巡回群(cyclic group)という。巡回群は明らかにアーベル群である。

正規部分群

Gの部分群Hがさらに下の条件を満たすとき、H正規部分群(normal subgroup)であるといい、 G ⊳ H と書く。

gG , hHg · h · g -1 ∈ H

上でみたように、n次対称群の任意の元はいくつかの互換の積として表せる。その表し方は一意ではないが、積として表すときに用いる互換の個数が偶数か奇数かは表し方によらず元のみによってきまることが知られており、偶数個で表せる元を偶置換(even permutation)と呼び、奇数個で表せる元を奇置換(odd permutation)と呼ぶ。偶置換の全体は明らかに正規部分群となる。これをn交代群(alternating group)といい、 A n > と書く。

正規部分群による商群

Gを群、Hをその部分群とする。Gに次のような同値関係を与える。

さて、せっかく群を群で割った商集合を考えているのだから、その商集合にも群の構造が入れば便利である。実はこの商集合には、HGの正規部分群ならば、次のような自然な演算によって群の構造を入れることができる。

準同型写像

f ( x ⋅ y ) = f ( x ) ⋅ f ( y ) , ∀ x , y ∈ G

準同型であって特に全単射なものを同型という。少し紛らわしい表現だが、Gから G' への同型写像があるときこの2つの群は同型であるといい、 G ≅ G ′ と書く。

GからG自身への同型写像をGの自己同型という。任意の群に対して自己同型は必ず存在する(恒等写像)。また、Gの自己同型全体をAutGと書くことにすると、この集合は写像の合成を演算として群となることがわかる(確かめよ)。これをG自己同型群という。

群の準同型定理

準同型定理の応用例として、同型定理と呼ばれる以下の命題たちを証明してみよう。

定理G,G' に対し、HGの部分群、NGの正規部分群、H'G' の正規部分群とする。


Jewish Life in Iran

In many ways, the revolution was also a revolution in the lives of Persian Jews. The new leaders of Iran sought to create a country modeled after their particular perception of the ideal Islamic society it was inevitable that this model would affect the lives of religious minorities.

While Islam&rsquos attitude towards other monotheistic faiths is, in principle, a fairly tolerant one, the writings and speeches of Ayatollah Khomeini and those close to him are full of vitriolic denunciations of Jews. Unlike the Pahlavi regime, which placed nationalism as its highest priority and saw Jews as equals, Khomeini&rsquos Islamic doctrine forced Jews into a position of inferiority vis-à-vis the Muslim majority.

Despite his supposed distinction between Jews and Zionists, Ayatollah Khomeini&rsquos doctrine contained anti-Jewish elements, including an emphasis on Shi&rsquoite doctrine pertaining to the impurity (najasat) of non-Muslims. According to traditional Islamic law, religious minorities are impure elements that pollute the Shiite believers with whom they come into contact. Historically, najasat was highly influential in governing daily relations between Jews and Shi&rsquoites. In his writings, Khomeini also attacked the Jews and accused them of distorting Islam, mistranslating the Koran, and taking over Iran&rsquos economy.

Still, official recognition of minorities was rooted in the Iranian constitution: Zoroastrian, Jewish and Christian Iranians are the only recognized religious minorities who, within the limits of the law, are free to perform the religious rites and ceremonies and to act according to their own canon in matters of personal affairs and religious education. Within this framework, the Jewish minority was guaranteed permanent representation in the Iranian parliament. The constitution also dictates that the Islamic Republican government and Iranian Muslims must treat non-Muslims according to Muslim principles of ethics and justice.

In practice, Jewish freedom of worship has not been limited in a meaningful way, and to this day Jewish holidays receive coverage in the media. Each year, local television stations broadcast programs on Jewish holidays &mdash especially Passover, when the state media carries the blessings of the Jewish community head and Majles representative. The community has continued administering its own schools, synagogues and other institutions, including Jewish hospitals, nursing homes, cemeteries, and libraries.

Today, Jews participate in Iranian civic and political life. Many Jews join the Iranian masses in protesting the State of Israel on the annual &ldquoQods Day&rdquo (Jerusalem Day), and during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), Iranian Jews supported the war effort by donating ambulances and surplus goods as well as making hospital visits. Some Jewish youth even took part in the fighting and were wounded in combat.

Anti-Semitism, however, remains. In 1999, 13 Jews from Shiraz and Isfahan were arrested on charges of spying for Israel, and they were convicted in 2000. By February 2003 all of them had been released, but the arrests planted fear in the heart of the Jewish community, bringing its loyalty under question.

Despite all these difficulties, most of the remaining Jews of Iran feel an unbreakable bond to their homeland and continue to live there. In a gathering of Iranian Jews in Shiraz at the end of 2002, several months after the release of some of the detainees, one of the leaders of the Jewish community made the following speech:

&ldquoWe are not the same subdued people as before. We are alive, joyful, active and Iran-lovers. We&rsquove been inhabitants of Iran for the past 2,700 years &hellip and Iran is our native country. We are essentially Iranians first and then Jews. We are proud to be Iranians. Long live Iran. Long live Iranians Jews.&rdquo (From the movie &ldquoJews of Iran,&rdquo directed by Ramin Farahani)


Watch the video: Aegri Somnia - Archetype of Fraud (June 2022).


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