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Franz Gürtner, the son of a a locomotive engineer, was born in Regensburg, on 16th February, 1891. After being educated locally he studied law at the University of Munich. On the outbreak of the First World War he joined the German Army and served on the Western Front. By the end of the war he had reached the rank of captain.
Gürtner returned to legal work in 1919. He joined the German Nationalist People's Party (DNVP) and in 1922 he became the Minister of Justice in Bavaria. According to his biographer, Louis L. Snyder, he developed a close relationship with Adolf Hitler and did much to "promote his career". At the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923 he became "Hitler's protector."
William L. Shirer, the author of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1964), has pointed out: "From beginning to end he dominated the courtroom. Franz Gürtner, the Bavarian Minister of Justice and an old friend and protector of the Nazi leader, had seen to it that the judiciary would be complacent and lenient. Hitler was allowed to interrupt as often as he pleased, cross-examine witnesses at will and speak on his own behalf at any time and at any length - his opening statement consumed four hours, but it was only the first of many long harangues."
Gürtner also obtained Hitler's release from Landsberg Prison despite the opposition of the state attorney's office. Alan Bullock the author of Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1952) has argued: While the Minister of the Interior, Franz Schweyer, was hostile and had already proposed Hitler's deportation to Austria, the new Minister-President, Knilling, and the Minister of Justice, Gürtner, saw in the Nazi movement a force to be put to good use, if it could only be kept in hand."
On 22nd September 1924, the Bavarian State Police submitted a report to the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior recommending Hitler's deportation. "The moment he is set free, Hitler will, because of his energy, again become the driving force of new and serious public riots and a menace to the security of the State. Hitler will, because of his energy, again become the driving force of new and serious public riots and a menace to the security of the State. Hitler will resume his political activities, and the hope of the nationalists and racists that he will succeed in removing the present dissensions among the para-military troops will be fulfilled." Thanks to the intervention of Gürtner, the threat of deportation was averted.
Gürtner also came to Hitler's aid after the death of his niece, Geli Raubal. Officially, Geli killed herself on 18th September, 1931. She was aged 23 and had been having a sexual relationship with her uncle for over two years. The anti-Nazi press published stories suggesting that Adolf Hitler was romantically involved with Geli and that he had murdered her because she was expecting a child by a Jewish music teacher. There was no inquest, and only one doctor examined her body before it was released, taken out the country and buried in Vienna. One of the advantages of having the body taken across the frontier was that this would rule out any possibility of exhuming her for an inquest.
In June 1932 Chancellor Franz von Papen appointed Gürtner as Minister of Justice. According to Alan Bullock has pointed out: "Of its ten members, none of whom was a political figure of the front rank, seven belonged to the nobility with known right-wing views. Of the remainder, Professor Warmbold, the Minister of Economics, was connected with the great Dye Trust, I.G. Farben, the Minister of Labour, was a director of Krupps; while the Minister of Justice, Franz Gürtner, was the Bavarian Minister who had most persistently protected Hitler in the 1920s."
Gürtner held the post under Adolf Hitler. In this position he nominated all judges, public prosecutors, and officers of the law. In 1934 Gürtner played a role in legitimizing the Night of the Long Knives, when hundreds of critics of Hitler were executed. Gürtner demonstrated his loyalty to the Nazi regime by writing a law that legalized the murders committed during the purge. Gürtner argued it was "justified as a means of State defense." Gürtner even quashed some initial efforts by local prosecutors to take legal action against those who carried out the murders. Gürtner was also involved in writing the Nuremberg Laws.
In the opening months of the Second World War Gürtner set up a system of courts to try Jews and Poles in the occupied lands in the east. According to Gürtner Gürtner played an important role in giving "official sanction to any act of dictatorship". Hitler was "always insistent on strict legality, relied on his Minister of Justice to find legal grounds for his government's actions."
On 8th July, 1940, Lothar Kreyssig, sent a letter to Gürtner complaining about the treatment of the disabled and prisoners in concentration camps. "What is right is what benefits the people. In the name of this frightful doctrine - as yet, uncontradicted by any guardian of rights in Germany - entire sectors of communal living are excluded from [having] rights, for example, all the concentration camps, and now, all hospitals and sanatoriums."
Kreyssig then filed a charge against Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler for murder. On 13th November, 1940, Kreyssig was summoned by the Minister of Justice. Gürtner laid before him Hitler's personal letter that had started the euthanasia program and which constituted the sole legal basis for it. Kreyssig replied, "The Führer's word does not create a right." Gürtner dismissed Kreyssig from his post, telling him, "If you cannot recognise the will of the Führer as a source of law, then you cannot remain a judge."
In the opening months of the Second World War Gürtner set up a system of courts to try Jews and Poles in the occupied lands in the east. Hitler was "always insistent on strict legality, relied on his Minister of Justice to find legal grounds for his government's actions."
Franz Gürtner died in Berlin on 29th January, 1941.
While the Minister of the Interior, Franz Schweyer, was hostile and had already proposed Hitler's deportation to Austria, the new Minister-President, Knilling, and the Minister of Justice, Gürtner, saw in the Nazi movement a force to be put to good use, if it could only be kept in hand.
Franz Gürtner, the Bavarian Minister of Justice and an old friend and protector of the Nazi leader, had seen to it that the judiciary would be complacent and lenient. Hitler was allowed to interrupt as often as he pleased, cross-examine witnesses at will and speak on his own behalf at any time and at any length - his opening statement consumed four hours, but it was only the first of many long harangues.
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Franz Schubert, in full Franz Peter Schubert, (born January 31, 1797, Himmelpfortgrund, near Vienna [Austria]—died November 19, 1828, Vienna), Austrian composer who bridged the worlds of Classical and Romantic music, noted for the melody and harmony in his songs (lieder) and chamber music. Among other works are Symphony No. 9 in C Major (The Great 1828), Symphony in B Minor (Unfinished 1822), masses, and piano works.
Who was Franz Schubert?
Franz Schubert was a 19th-century Austrian music composer and key figure in bridging the Classical and Romantic periods. He is noted for the melody and harmony in his songs and chamber music. He also produced several symphonies, masses, and piano works.
What was Franz Schubert’s early life like?
Franz Schubert was born on January 31, 1797, near Vienna, Austria. He was one of five children of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth Schubert. Schubert received his music education foundation from his father and his eldest brother, playing the viola and the organ and studying music theory under the instruction of a parish church organist.
What changes did Franz Schubert make to classical harmony?
Franz Schubert purposefully disavowed modulation via the smooth succession of pivot chords. He preferred to drop suddenly into unrelated, and therefore unexpected, keys, as in the transition from C major to E minor in the opening movement of his Symphony No. 9 in C Major, which he began in 1825.
What are some of Franz Schubert’s most famous compositions?
Franz Schubert is best remembered for his songs—also called lieder—and his chamber music. He also created symphonies, masses, and piano works. His most notable works included Erlkönig, written in 1815 and based on a poem by Goethe Ave Maria!, written in 1825 and the Symphony No. 9 in C Major, begun in 1825.
How did Franz Schubert die?
In October 1828 Franz Schubert developed typhoid fever as a resulting of drinking tainted water. He spent his last days in the company of his brother and several close friends. He died on November 19, 1828, in Vienna, Austria. He was 31 years old.
Schubert worked as a schoolmaster for the next four years. But he also continued to compose music. In fact, between 1813 and 1815, Schubert proved to be a prolific songwriter. By 1814, the young composer had written a number of piano pieces, and had produced string quartets, a symphony, and a three-act opera.
Over the next year, his output included two additional symphonies and two of his first Lieds, "Gretchen am Spinnrade" and "Erlkönig." Schubert is, in fact, largely credited with creating the German Lied. Boosted by a wealth of late 18th-century lyric poetry and the development of the piano, Schubert tapped the poetry of giants like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, showing the world the possibility of representing their works in musical form.
In 1818, Schubert, who had not only found a welcome audience for his music but had grown tired of teaching, left education to pursue music full-time. His decision was sparked in part by the first public performance of one of his works, the "Italian Overture in C Major," on March 1, 1818, in Vienna.
The decision to leave school teaching seems to have ushered in a new wave of creativity in the young composer. That summer he completed a string of material, including piano duets "Variations on a French Song in E minor" and the "Sonata in B Flat Major," as well as several dances and songs.
That same year, Schubert returned to Vienna and composed the operetta "Die Zwillingsbrﳞr (The Twin Brothers), which was performed in June 1820 and met with some success. Schubert&aposs musical output also included the score for the play "Die Zauberharfe" (The Magic Harp), which debuted in August 1820.
The resulting performances, as well as Schubert&aposs other pieces, greatly expanded his popularity and appeal. He also showed himself to be a visionary. His composition "Quartettsatz [Quartet-Movement] in C minor," helped spark a wave of string quartets that would dominate the music scene later in the decade.
But Schubert had his struggles as well. In 1820, he was hired by two opera houses, the Karthnerthof Theatre and Theatre-an-der-Wein, to compose a pair of operas, neither of which fared very well. Music publishers, meanwhile, were afraid to take a chance on a young composer like Schubert, whose music was not considered traditional.
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In 1833, at the age of 22, Liszt met the Comtesse Marie d&aposAgoult. Inspired by love and nature, he composed several impressions of the Swiss countryside in "Album d&aposun voyageur," which would later surface as the "Annພs de Pèlerinage" ("Years of Pilgrimage"). In 1834, Liszt debuted his piano compositions "Harmonies poétiques et religieuses" and a set of three "Apparitions."
Strengthened by new works and several public performances, Liszt began to take Europe by storm. His reputation was bolstered even further by the fact that he gave away many of his concert proceeds to charities and humanitarian causes. For example, when in 1842 he found out about the Great Fire of Hamburg, which had destroyed much of the city, he gave concerts to create aid for its thousands of homeless. On a personal level, however, matters were less than glorious for Liszt. His relationship with Marie d&aposAgoult, which by that point had produced three children, finally ended. In 1847, while in Kiev, Liszt met Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein. Her influence on him was dramatic she encouraged him to stop touring and, instead, teach and compose, so he could have a more domestic life with her. Liszt gave his final concert for pay at Elisavetgrad in September, and then spent the winter with the princess at her estate in Woronince.
The next year, the couple moved to Weimar, Germany, and Liszt began to concentrate on a higher missionóthe creation of new musical forms. His most famous achievement during this time was the creation of what would become known as the symphonic poem, a type of orchestral musical piece that illustrates or evokes a poem, a story, a painting, or other nonmusical source. Aesthetically, the symphonic poem is in some ways related to opera it is not sung, but it does unite music and drama. Liszt&aposs new works inspired eager pupils to seek his guidance. For the next 10 years, Liszt&aposs radical and innovative works found their way into the concert halls of Europe, winning him staunch followers and violent adversaries.
Youth and early training
Liszt’s father, Ádám Liszt, was an official in the service of Prince Nicolas Eszterházy, whose palace in Eisenstadt was frequented by many celebrated musicians. Ádám Liszt was a talented amateur musician who played the cello in the court concerts. By the time Franz was five years old, he was already attracted to the piano and was soon given lessons by his father. He began to show interest in both church music and Roma music. He developed into a religious child, also because of the influence of his father, who during his youth had spent two years in the Franciscan order.
Franz began to compose at the age of eight. When only nine he made his first public appearance as a concert pianist at Sopron and Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). His playing so impressed the local Hungarian magnates that they put up the money to pay for his musical education for the next six years. Ádám obtained leave of absence from his post and took Franz to Vienna, where he had piano lessons with Carl Czerny, a composer and pianist who had been a pupil of Ludwig van Beethoven, and studied composition with Antonio Salieri, the musical director at the Viennese court. He gave several concerts in Vienna, with great success. The legend that Beethoven attended one of Liszt’s concerts and kissed the prodigy on the forehead is considered apocryphal—but Liszt certainly met Beethoven.
Liszt moved with his family to Paris in 1823, giving concerts in Germany on the way. He was refused admission to the Paris Conservatoire because he was a foreigner instead, he studied with Anton Reicha, a theorist who had been a pupil of Joseph Haydn’s brother Michael, and Ferdinando Paer, the director of the Théâtre-Italien in Paris and a composer of light operas. Liszt’s Paris debut on March 7, 1824, was sensational. Other concerts quickly followed, as well as a visit to London in June. He toured England again the following year, playing for George IV at Windsor Castle and also visiting Manchester, where his New Grand Overture was performed for the first time. This piece was used as the overture to his one-act opera Don Sanche, which was performed at the Paris Opéra on October 17, 1825. In 1826 he toured France and Switzerland, returning to England again in the following year. Suffering from nervous exhaustion, Liszt expressed a desire to become a priest. His father took him to Boulogne to take sea baths to improve his health there Ádám died of typhoid fever. Liszt returned to Paris and sent for his mother to join him she had gone back to the Austrian province of Styria during his tours.
Liszt now earned his living mainly as a piano teacher, and in 1828 he fell in love with one of his pupils. When her father insisted that the attachment be broken off, Liszt again became extremely ill he was considered so close to death that his obituary appeared in a Paris newspaper. After his illness he underwent a long period of depression and doubt about his career. For more than a year he did not touch the piano and was dissuaded from joining the priesthood only through the efforts of his mother. He experienced much religious pessimism. During this period Liszt took an active dislike to the career of a virtuoso. He made up for his previous lack of education by reading widely, and he came into contact with many of the leading artists of the day, including Alphonse de Lamartine, Victor Hugo, and Heinrich Heine. With the July Revolution of 1830 resulting in the abdication of the French king Charles X and the coronation of Louis-Philippe, he sketched out a Revolutionary Symphony.
Between 1830 and 1832 he met three men who were to have a great influence on his artistic life. At the end of 1830 he first met Hector Berlioz and heard the first performance of his Symphonie fantastique. From Berlioz he inherited the command of the Romantic orchestra and also the diabolic quality that remained with him for the rest of his life. He achieved the seemingly impossible feat of transcribing Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique for the piano in 1833, and he helped Berlioz by transcribing other works of his and playing them in concert. In March 1831 he heard Niccolò Paganini play for the first time. He again became interested in virtuoso technique and resolved to transfer some of Paganini’s fantastic violin effects to the piano, writing a fantasia on his La campanella. At this time he also met Frédéric Chopin, whose poetical style of music exerted a profound influence on Liszt.
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Deeply in love, Ferdinand chose to marry Sophie Chotek in 1900 despite the opposition of his uncle, Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Josef, who refused to attend their wedding. Though not exactly a commoner, Sophie came from a family of obscure Czech nobles and not from a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty of Europe. As a result, her and Ferdinand’s children were declared ineligible for the throne. Sophie also became the victim of countless petty slights. At imperial banquets, for example, she entered each room last, without an escort, and was then seated far away from her husband at the dinner table.
His marriage notwithstanding, Ferdinand remained Franz Josef’s heir and inspector general of the army. In that capacity, he agreed to attend a series of June 1914 military exercises in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary had just annexed these provinces a few years earlier against the wishes of neighboring Serbia, which likewise coveted them. Ferdinand believed the Serbs to be “pigs,” “thieves,” “murderers” and “scoundrels.” Yet he had opposed annexation for fear that it would make an already turbulent political situation even worse. Formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire, Bosnia-Herzegovina’s population was roughly 40 percent Serb, 30 percent Muslim and 20 percent Croat, with various other ethnicities making up the remainder.
Upon learning of Ferdinand’s upcoming visit, the Young Bosnians, a secret revolutionary society of peasant students, began plotting to assassinate him. In May, Gavrilo Princip, Trifko Grabez and Nedeljko Cabrinovic traveled to the Serbian capital of Belgrade, where they received six handheld bombs, four semi-automatic pistols and cyanide suicide capsules from members of the so-called Black Hand, a terrorist group with close ties to the Serbian army. After practicing with their pistols in a Belgrade park, the three men journeyed back to Bosnia-Herzegovina, receiving help from Black Hand associates to smuggle their weapons across the border. To this day, it remains unclear whether the Serbian government participated in the scheme.
Ferdinand and Sophie departed their estate for Bosnia-Herzegovina on June 23. Having received multiple warnings to cancel the trip, the archduke knew that danger potentially awaited them. “Our journey starts with an extremely promising omen,” he purportedly said when the axles on his car overheated. “Here our car burns, and down there they will throw bombs at us.” After arriving at a spa town a few miles outside of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina’s capital, Ferdinand attended two days of military exercises while Sophie visited schools and orphanages. On a whim, the couple drove in one evening to check out Sarajevo’s bazaars. While there, they attracted a crowd of onlookers, including Princip, but were apparently treated with warmth and politeness.
Following a banquet with religious and political leaders, only one day of events remained before Ferdinand and Sophie were to return home. That morning, June 28, the archduke sent a telegram to his eldest son congratulating him on his latest exam results. He and Sophie then boarded a train for the short ride into Sarajevo. For once, Sophie was permitted to walk alongside Ferdinand during a brief troop inspection, after which the couple got in an open-topped car for a motorcade ride to city hall. The car in front of them was supposed to carry six specially trained officers but instead had only one, plus three local policemen. In fact, throughout the trip, Austro-Hungarian officials allegedly focused more attention on dinner menus than security details.
Meanwhile, seven Young Bosnians had fanned out along the Appel Quay, a main avenue in Sarajevo running parallel to the Miljacka River. When the motorcade passed by, its route having been published in advance, Cabrinovic asked which car carried the archduke. He then hurled his bomb at the car, only to watch it bounce off the folded-up roof and roll underneath the wrong vehicle. The subsequent explosion wounded two army officers and several bystanders but left Ferdinand and Sophie essentially unharmed. Cabrinovic jumped into the mostly dry riverbed and made a half-hearted attempt to kill himself before being apprehended. “I am a Serbian hero,” he purportedly shouted as the police led him away. At least two other Young Bosnians also had good looks at the archduke but apparently lost the nerve to attempt an assassination.
Princip taken into custody after shooting Archduke Franz Ferdinand his wife Sophie
Rather than immediately flee Sarajevo, Ferdinand decided to continue on to the planned event at city hall. Upon finishing that up, he insisted on visiting the wounded officers in the hospital. In order to dissuade any other bomb throwers, the motorcade zipped down the Appel Quay at high speeds. By mistake, however, the first three cars turned onto a side street right where Princip happened to be standing. As the cars attempted to reverse back onto the Appel Quay, Princip whipped out his pistol and fired two shots at the archduke from point-blank range, piercing him in the neck and also striking Sophie’s abdomen. “Sophie, Sophie, don’t die—stay alive for our children,” Ferdinand murmured. Within minutes, though, both had passed away. Princip, a slender, 19-year-old Serbian army reject, later admitted to killing Ferdinand but said he had not meant to hit Sophie. Three weeks too young for the death penalty, Princip was given a 20-year sentence, but contracted tuberculosis and died in jail in April 1918, at the age of just 23.
With tensions already running high among Europe’s powers, the assassination precipitated a rapid descent into World War I. First, Austria-Hungary gained German support for punitive action against Serbia. It then sent Serbia an ultimatum, worded in a way that made acceptance unlikely. Serbia proposed arbitration to resolve the dispute, but Austria-Hungary instead declared war on July 28, 1914, exactly a month after Ferdinand’s death. By the following week, Germany, Russia, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Great Britain had all been drawn into the conflict, and other countries like the United States would enter later. Overall, more than 9 million soldiers and nearly that many civilians would die in fighting that lasted until 1918.
Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 – May 13, 1962) was an American painter. He is associated with the Abstract Expressionist movement of the 1940s and 1950s. Kline, along with other action painters like Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell and Lee Krasner, as well as local poets, dancers, and musicians came to be known as the informal group, the New York School. Although he explored the same innovations to painting as the other artists in this group, Kline's work is distinct in itself and has been revered since the 1950s.
Kline was born in Wilkes-Barre, a small coal-mining community in Eastern Pennsylvania. When he was seven years old, Kline's father committed suicide. During his youth he moved to Lehighton, Pennsylvania and graduated from Lehighton High School. His mother later remarried and sent him to Girard College, an academy in Philadelphia for fatherless boys. After graduation from high school, Kline studied art at Boston University from 1931 to 1935, then spent a year in England attending the Heatherley School of Fine Art in London. During this time, he met his future wife, Elizabeth V. Parsons, a British ballet dancer. She returned to the United States with Kline in 1938.
Upon his return to the country, Kline worked as a designer for a department store in New York state. He then moved to New York City in 1939 and worked for a scenic designer. It was during this time in New York that Kline developed his artistic techniques and gained recognition as a significant artist.
He later taught at a number of institutions including Black Mountain College in North Carolina and the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. He spent summers from 1956 to 1962 painting in Provincetown, Massachusetts, and died in 1962 in New York City of a rheumatic heart disease, ten days before his 52nd birthday.
Kline's artistic training focused on traditional illustrating and drafting. During the late 1930s and early 1940s Kline worked figuratively, painting landscapes and cityscapes in addition to commissioned portraits and murals. His individual style can be first seen in the mural series Hot Jazz, which he painted for a New York bar in 1940.
The series revealed his interest in breaking down representative forms into quick, rudimentary brushstrokes.
The personal style he developed during this time, using simplified forms, became increasingly more abstract. Many of the figures he depicted are based on the locomotives, stark landscapes, and large mechanical shapes of his native, coal-mining community in Pennsylvania. This is sometimes only apparent to viewers because the pieces are named after those places and objects, not because they actually look like the subject. With the influence of the contemporary New York art scene, Kline worked further into abstraction and eventually abandoned representationalism. From the late 1940s onward, Kline began generalizing his figurative subjects into lines and planes which fit together much like the works of Cubism of the time.
In 1946 the Lehighton, Pennsylvania Post of the American Legion commissioned Kline to do a large canvas depicting the town where he had attended high school. The work now known as The Lehighton Mural was later acquired from the American legion post by the Allentown Art Museum in Allentown, Pennsylvania and is today on permanent exhibition there.
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The Mature Artist
While Haydn rose in the Esterházy family&aposs esteem, his popularity outside the palace walls also increased, and he eventually wrote as much music for publication as for the family. Several important works of this period were commissions from abroad, such as the Paris symphonies (1785-1786) and the original orchestral version of "The Seven Last Words of Christ" (1786). Haydn came to feel sequestered and lonely, however, missing friends back in Vienna, such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, so in 1791, when a new Esterházy prince let Haydn go, he quickly accepted an invitation to go to England to conduct new symphonies with German violinist and impresario Johan Peter Salomon. He would return to London again in 1794 for another successful and lucrative season.
Chris' search for a new hobby leads him to befriend an old puppeteer who turns out to be a former Nazi.
Season: 9 Episode: 11
Total Episode Count: 158
Prod. no.: 8ACX14
First Aired: February 20, 2011
When the family becomes concerned about Chris' personal amusement habits, Peter decides to help him find a hobby. After Peter's failings, Chris' search for a new hobby leads him to befriend a puppeteer named Franz. Herbert recognizes Franz and tells Peter and Lois of his true past as the leader of a concentration camp but they are skeptical. He then attempts to tell Chris but Chris does not believe him. After Peter arrives to invite Franz to dinner, Chris asks to use the restroom. Chris stumbles into the wrong room and discovers what Herbert said was true.
Franz shuts Chris and Peter in his basement at gunpoint. Peter manages to get Chris Franz's gun to Chris who doesn't know who to shoot, and asks them his birthday. Franz answers correctly so Chris shoots Peter and Franz recovers the gun. Finding a window that is too narrow to crawl out they try to attract attention but waste their first chance insulting Meg. They try again when Herbert passes by but he fails to notice them. They manage to get Herbert's dog Jesse's attention and relay their story to Herbert, with Peter asking Herbert to insult Meg. Herbert decides to confront Franz and suits up in his WWII army uniform. When he tells Franz exactly who he was and promises that there will only be one survivor of their fight, Franz pulls off his sweater vest and shirt to reveal his Nazi uniform and the two engage in battle. Despite them moving extremely slowly due to old age and interruptions for naps, pills and Franz getting stuck on the couch, Herbert manages to force Franz out of the house where he falls off the step and dies. Herbert gets Chris and Peter out of the basement. After showing their appreciation, Meg tells of being insulted by Herbert as Peter had previously requested.