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Lillian SwStGbt - History

Lillian SwStGbt - History

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(SwStGbt: t. 630; 1. 225'6"; b. 2ff' dr. 8'2"; s. 14 k.;
a 1 90-pdr, 1 20-pdr.)

Lilian, an iron wide-wheel steamer built on the Clyde River, Scotland, in 1863, was captured some 100 miles east of Cape Fear, N.C., 24 August 1864 by Keytone State and other Union ships. Among the prisoners were five Wilmington pilots being carried to Rermuda to guide Confederate ships through the blockade. Purchased by the Navy from the Philadelphia Prize Court 6 September 1864, she was commissioned 6 October at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Acting Volunteer Lt. T. A. Harris in command.

Lilian Joined the fleet attacking Fort Fisher Cape Fear River, 23 to 24 December 1864 and 13 to i4 January 1865. She landed troops above the fort on the 13th, and then bombarded it. After this attack, ihe patrolled the inlet, and with Trietam Shady captured the British steamer Blenlleim 25 January.

She decommissioned 5 April 1865 and was sold at public auction at New York 30 November 1865. Documented 8 October 1866, Lilian operated in merchant service until 1868.

Lillian S. Williams

Lillian S. Williams is an expert on U.S. social and urban history. Her research is in the areas of institutions, ethnicity, biography and women&rsquos history, and much of her scholarship has worked to preserve the history and records of women and African Americans.

Williams has studied the Young Men&rsquos and Young Women&rsquos Christian Associations the National Urban League and Jewish club women. She edited the microfilm edition of the papers of the National Association of Colored Women&rsquos Clubs. She has also consulted on historical projects for museums, corporations and nonprofit organizations. Government agencies also have sought her advice regarding urban planning and public policy issues.

Closer to home, Williams is an expert on the history of African Americans in Western New York, having authored, &ldquoStrangers in the Land of Paradise: Creation of an African American Community in Buffalo, New York, 1900-1940.&rdquo She is writing a biography on Mary Burnett Talbert, an early 20th century reformer and suffragist who spent much of her life in Buffalo.


Lillian S. Williams, PhD
Associate Professor of Africana and American Studies
University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences

What Lillian family records will you find?

There are 10,000 census records available for the last name Lillian. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Lillian census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 2,000 immigration records available for the last name Lillian. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 459 military records available for the last name Lillian. For the veterans among your Lillian ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 10,000 census records available for the last name Lillian. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Lillian census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 2,000 immigration records available for the last name Lillian. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 459 military records available for the last name Lillian. For the veterans among your Lillian ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Family Of Woman Who Portrayed Aunt Jemima Speaks Out About Quaker Oats's Rebranding Decision 05:59

Quaker Oats announced earlier this month it's rebranding Aunt Jemima pancake mix and syrup because of its racist history.

But descendants of Lillian Richard, who portrayed Aunt Jemima for years, say the company decided to rename the brand without consulting the families of the women who brought the character to life.

While Vera Harris, Richard’s niece, supports the decision and the Black Lives Matter movement, Aunt Jemima represents a part of history for her family and the town of Hawkins, Texas.

“Erasing my Aunt Lillian Richard would erase a part of history,” says Harris, who serves as family historian for the Richard family of Hawkins. “All of the people in my family are happy and proud of Aunt Lillian and what she accomplished.”

Aunt Jemima portrays the white, romanticized notion of an Antebellum “mammy,” detached from the cruel reality of enslavement during the late 19th century. The inspiration for the character came from the song “Old Aunt Jemima.” Starting at the World's Fair in 1893, a formerly enslaved woman named Nancy Green was the first to travel around the country wearing an apron and bandana as Aunt Jemima.

Richard served as one of 12 brand ambassadors starting in 1925. In Hawkins, a historical marker dedicated to her commemorates how she made a career during the time when Black women had very few opportunities.

When Richard turned 20, she went to Dallas to look for work during a time when most jobs for Black women were domestic maids and cooks, Harris says. Quaker Oats discovered Richard and offered her an ambassador job.

“I think she was excited about it because first off, it was a job,” Harris says, “and she would go around to give demonstrations at fairs, and at stores and other public places.”

To keep her aunt’s legacy alive, Harris says her family hopes Quaker Oats comes out with a commemorative box to recognize the many women who portrayed Aunt Jemima over the years. The back of the box could list their names and put a spotlight on one of the women each month, she suggests.

Harris would like to see the box include a photo of her aunt dressed as Aunt Jemima with the scarf — but also a photo of Richard looking like herself to show people a complete picture.

“She was an intelligent, young, vital, beautiful Black woman that took the job. She understood the times that she lived and she just wanted to work,” she says.

As a child, Harris’ family told her about her aunt’s portrayal of Aunt Jemima. Richard is buried near Harris’ parents, so the family hopes to continue celebrating her legacy.

Quaker Oats didn’t consult the Richard family before announcing their decision to rebrand, but Harris says they have since reached out to the company about preserving Richard’s legacy.

After all, Richard and the other Black women who played Aunt Jemima helped build the Quaker Oats brand.

“For that, I think Quaker Oaks owes them a large gratitude of thanks,” she says.

Marcelle Hutchins produced and edited this interview for broadcast with Tinku Ray. Allison Hagan adapted it for the web.

This segment aired on June 29, 2020.

Research / Contribute

Lillian Gunter, pioneer county librarian and architect of the County Free Library Law of Texas, was born at Sivells Bend, Texas, on September 15, 1870, to Addison Yancey and Elizabeth (Ligon) Gunter. Her parents had moved to Texas in the 1850s, he from North Carolina (via Troupe County, Georgia) and she from Clay County, Missouri. In 1866 her father, who served a term in the Texas legislature in 1885, bought a plantation at Sivells Bend on the Red River, where Lillian grew to womanhood. Her home became a frequent stopping place for friends and travelers eager to discuss major issues of the day with the Gunter brothers, agricultural, civic, and Democratic political leaders of North Texas. Lillian attended the local school until she was twelve. Then she entered Sacred Heart Convent in St. Louis, Missouri, where she studied for three years (1882–85) later she spent two years at the Wesleyan Institute, Staunton, Virginia. After her father's death in 1892, she managed his estate until 1901, when she and her mother moved to nearby Gainesville.

As a member of the XLI Club, a local women's literary society that also played an active role in civic affairs, Lillian Gunter took the initiative in transforming a small subscription library into the Gainesville Public Library, which she directed for ten years. This library, located in a Carnegie building completed in 1914, became the central library for the Cooke County system, which was established in 1920. On learning there was no legal way that rural people could organize and support a public library in Texas, Lillian Gunter began the crusade to pass a county-library law. She studied the systems of New York and California, traveling to both states at her own expense enlisted the aid of legislators, the Texas Library Association, the Texas Federation of Women's Clubs, newspapers, and townspeople wrote legislation and fought legal battles to establish service for Texans. Her determination overcame defeat and frustration from delays, led to an awareness that the first county-library law was weak and unworkable, and brought about a new law, passed in 1917. The courts overturned this law, however. With the help of Cooke County representative George W. Dayton, who urged passage in the legislature, Gunter's continued efforts resulted in the passage of a new County Free Library Law in 1919, a statute that remains in effect.

The Cooke County Library, which Gunter founded in 1920 and directed until her death, was the second such system established under the new law (Dallam County having founded the first only a few months earlier), but the first established by petition. The direction and expansion of the library during its early years earned for its director the reputation of being an authority on library establishment and administration. Many librarians and laymen throughout Texas and the Southwest sought her advice on their problems, and in response to their appeals she made speeches and wrote numerous articles. Lillian Gunter, however, did not confine her activities to librarianship. Because of her interest in local and regional history, she became in 1925 a charter member of the Red River Valley Historical Association. She was an active member of the Texas Library Association and served as its first vice president in 1915–16, president in 1918–19, and treasurer in 1914–15. She was a cofounder in 1922 and first treasurer of the Southwestern Library Association. She died on October 10, 1926, at her mother's home in Gainesville and was buried in the family cemetery at Sivells Bend.

Lillian D. Wald

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Lillian D. Wald, (born March 10, 1867, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 1, 1940, Westport, Conn.), American nurse and social worker who founded the internationally known Henry Street Settlement in New York City (1893).

Wald grew up in her native Cincinnati, Ohio, and in Rochester, New York. She was educated in a private school, and after abandoning a plan to attend Vassar College she passed a few years enjoying an active social life. In 1889 she broke completely with that life and entered the New York Hospital Training School for Nurses, from which she graduated in 1891. For a year she worked as a nurse in the New York Juvenile Asylum. She supplemented her training in 1892–93 with courses at the Woman’s Medical College. She was asked to organize a class in home nursing for the poor immigrant families of New York’s Lower East Side, and in the course of that work she observed firsthand the wretched conditions within the tenement districts.

In the autumn of 1893, with Mary M. Brewster, Wald left medical school, moved to the neighbourhood, and offered her services as a visiting nurse. Two years later, with aid from banker-philanthropist Jacob H. Schiff and others, she took larger accommodations and opened the Nurse’s Settlement. As the number of nurses attached to the settlement grew (from the original 2 in 1893 to 92 in 1913 and to more than 250 by 1929), services were expanded to include nurses’ training, educational programs for the community, and youth clubs. Within a few years the Henry Street establishment had become a neighbourhood centre, the Henry Street Settlement. Over the years the settlement was a powerful source of innovation in the social settlement movement and in the broader field of social work generally. The Neighborhood Playhouse was opened in connection with the settlement in 1915 through the benefaction of Irene Lewisohn. Residents at Henry Street included at various times social reformer Florence Kelley, economist Adolf A. Berle, Jr., labour leader Sidney Hillman, and Henry Morgenthau, Jr., U.S. secretary of the Treasury under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Wald exerted considerable influence beyond Henry Street as well. In 1902, at her initiative, nursing service was experimentally extended to a local public school, and soon the municipal board of health instituted a citywide public school nursing program, the first such program in the world. The organization of nursing programs by insurance companies for their industrial policyholders (pioneered by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in 1909) and of the district nursing service of the Red Cross (begun in 1912 and later called Town and Country Nursing Service) were both at her suggestion.

In 1912 Wald’s role as founder of an entirely new profession was formally acknowledged when she helped found and became first president of the National Organization for Public Health Nursing. She also worked to establish educational, recreational, and social programs in underprivileged neighbourhoods. In 1912 Congress established the U.S. Children’s Bureau (headed by Julia Lathrop), also in no small part owing to Wald’s suggestion, and in that year she was awarded the gold medal of the National Institute of Social Sciences.

Wald was active in other areas of reform, particularly with the National Child Labor Committee, which she and Florence Kelley helped found in 1903, the national Women’s Trade Union League, and the American Union Against Militarism, which she, Kelley, and Jane Addams helped organize in 1914 and of which she was elected president. During World War I she headed the committee on home nursing of the Council of National Defense. She led the Nurses’ Emergency Council in the influenza epidemic of 1918–19. Later she founded the League of Free Nations, a forerunner of the Foreign Policy Association. She wrote two autobiographical books, The House on Henry Street (1915) and Windows on Henry Street (1934). In 1933 ill health forced her to resign as head worker of Henry Street, and she settled in Westport, Connecticut.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

Lillian Wald

Lillian Wald originated the public health nursing service and the Henry Street Settlement to meet the needs of the poor in New York City’s Lower East Side. During the early twentieth century, this outstanding nurse and social activist was a dynamic force for social reform, creating widely-adopted models of public health and social service programs.

Wald’s nursing education in New York showed her that tenement residents lacked health care, and so she organized the Henry Street Nurses Settlement (l893), the first public health nursing program in the nation. Wald went on to help organize other public health nursing programs in universities and for organizations, including the American Red Cross. She was the first president of the National Organization of Public Health Nurses, a professional group she helped to create. Recognizing that the urban poor had great needs beyond health care, Wald expanded Henry Street services to include social services, especially those benefitting children. She led the charge to abolish child labor, and helped secure the creation of the federal Children’s Bureau in 1912.

Year Honored: 1993

Birth: 1867 - 1940

Born In: Ohio

Achievements: Science

Educated In: New York, United States of America

Schools Attended: Miss Cruttenden's English-French Boarding and Day School, New York Hospital Training School, Woman's Medical College

Copyright © 2021
All Rights Reserved.
National Women&rsquos Hall of Fame.

1 Canal Street
Post Office Box 335
Seneca Falls, NY 13148
Phone (315) 568-8060

Shop at AmazonSmile and Amazon will make a donation to the National Women&rsquos Hall of Fame

Major works invited controversy

After a "year and a half of stumbling stubbornness," Hellman finished "The Children's Hour" (1934), based on an actual incident in Scotland. The action of the play is triggered by a child's accusation of sexual relations against two female teachers, which leads to one woman's suicide (where a person takes his or her own life). The play reveals Hellman's sharp characterizations and clear, moral comment on a theme considered dramatically untouchable at the time.

"In Days to Come" (1936), a play of a crumbling family as well as of the struggle between union (an organization that fights for workers' rights) and management, Hellman's dramatic touch faltered. However, her next play, "The Little Foxes" (1939), ranks as one of the most powerful in American drama. Set in the South, it depicts a family almost completely engulfed by greed and hate.

During World War II (1939� a war in which France, Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan), Hellman wrote two plays. "Watch on the Rhine" (1941), which received the New York City Critics Circle Award, was a drama about an underground hero, and spoke out harshly against the Nazis (a radical political party that controlled Germany leading up to, and during, World War II). "The Searching Wind" (1944) championed the movement against fascism (a form of government characterized by leadership by one all-powerful ruler), criticizing the failure of influential Americans to halt the rise of Germany's Adolph Hitler (1889�) and Italy's Benito Mussolini (1883�).

In Ȫnother Part of the Forest" (1946), Hellman again portrayed the Hubbard family of "The Little Foxes" she also directed the play. Ȫutumn Garden" (1951) lacked the usual passion of her dramas but was a touching

Lillian, TX

Lillian is on Farm Road 2738 fifteen miles northeast of Cleburne in northeastern Johnson County. In 1902 G. J. Renfro purchased land from J. W. Cunningham to establish a town that would be near the line of the International-Great Northern Railroad, which had just built into the area. Both men's wives were named Lillian, hence the name of the town. By the next year Lillian had two churches and a school. In 1904 a post office began serving the community, and residents from nearby Pleasant Point moved to the railroad town. Lillian's population and businesses grew rapidly, and a bank opened there in 1905. By 1914 Lillian had a population of 300 and for the next twenty years served as a retail center for area farmers and ranchers. In 1917 the community overcame a fire that destroyed most of the buildings on the south side. By the mid-1920s its population had reached 350. Over the next twenty-five years the Great Depression, World War II, and the growth of Dallas-Fort Worth retarded the growth of Lillian. By the mid-1950s its population had declined to 150. In 1968 the community had 96 residents and three businesses, in 1988 some 100 residents and four businesses, and in 1990 about 105 residents and six businesses. The population remained the same in 2000 with sixteen businesses.

Starting a Nurse’s Settlement in the Lower East Side of NYC

In 1893, Wald left medical school, moved into the poverty-stricken Lower East Side neighborhood, and began to offer her services to poor immigrants living in the area. She rallied supporters and raised funding to found a Nurse’s Settlement, which eventually expanded to offer not just healthcare services to residents, but also social services and instruction in subjects like English language and music. The settlement grew to Henry Street and was renamed the Henry Street Settlement.

By 1913, the Henry Street Settlement had expanded to seven buildings, two centers and 92 nurses making 200,000 visits a year. Wald was the headworker until 1933 and was a tireless advocate for social reform, public health and human rights. Henry Street still exists today, offering social services, arts and healthcare programs to New Yorkers in need—with services and programs ranging from mental health counseling to Meals on Wheels delivery, from early childhood education to after-school programming, from transitional shelter for homeless women to job training.

Founding the Visiting Nurse Service of New York

Another endeavor of Wald’s was to place nurses in public schools and she helped found the National Organization for Public Health Nursing as well as the School of Nursing at Columbia University. In 1944, the home healthcare arm of the Settlement broke off into its own entity: today known as the Visiting Nurse Service of New York. It is now the largest not-for-profit home- and community-based health care organization in the United States, serving the five boroughs of New York City, and Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties.

Helping People for a Better World

Lillian Wald has been called the founder of modern-day public health nursing. She was a visionary and someone who believed in making healthcare accessible for all, not just those with the financial means.

To Brenda Helmer, associate professor at American Sentinel University, Wald’s attention to the needs of her community is exactly what today’s nurses should focus on as well. “As we move to improve the health of the nation and increase access to quality cost-effective healthcare, Lillian Wald’s example is poignant,” says Dr. Helmer, who worked as a school nurse and a home healthcare nurse for 12 years before moving into nursing education.

“Lillian Wald’s story inspires me and helps me see that even though we are in a new era of healthcare delivery, we should never forget the key to great nursing practice is how we care for our patients and communities,” says Dr. Helmer. “This quality of caring is one that I aspire to share with all of my students at American Sentinel and is embedded in our vision as we strive to understand and meet the changing needs of our students and communities.”

Want to Make an Impact? Contact American Sentinel

If you feel called to deepen your impact on the patients you help and the communities you serve by furthering your education, it might be time to explore American Sentinel University. Our online, market-relevant nursing degree programs help students achieve their goals in many different areas. Learn more today at, or call us at 866.922.5690.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 2020 as the “Year of the Nurse and Midwife” in honor of the 200th birth anniversary of Florence Nightingale.


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