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Hilary L. Rubinstein

Hilary L. Rubinstein



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The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History Hardcover – Import, 22 February 2011

'This comprehensive dictionary can be recommended to anyone interested in the remarkable history of the Jews of Britain. Its editors are to be congratulated on a major achievement. The reading and research that have gone into this book have been formidable. The result is that the reader meets the whole spectrum of British Jewish contribution, through the centuries and across the length and breadth of the country. Jewish institutions - such as the Chief Rabbinate and the Board of Deputies of British Jews - and moments in Anglo-Jewish history, - such as the Battle of Cable Street - are also included, as are the cities and towns in which Jews lived, and to whose municipal life they contributed.'
- Sir Martin Gilbert

'In his introduction, the editor-in-chief, Professor William D Rubenstein, asks rhetorically whether a second edition of the volume will ever appear. I hope very much that it will. The Palgrave dictionary is a work of considerable scholarship and (I suspect) a labour of love.' - Geoffrey Alderman, The Jewish Chronicle online

Book Description

About the Author

WILLIAM D. RUBINSTEIN is Professor of Modern History at the University of Aberystwyth, UKand a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He has published widely on modern British history and on modern Jewish history, and was President of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 2002-2004. His works include A History of the Jews in the English-Speaking World: Great Britain (Palgrave Macmillan 1996), The Myth of Rescue (1997), and Israel, the Jews and the West: The Fall and Rise of Antisemitism (2008).

MICHAEL JOLLES is a member of the Council of the Jewish Historical Society of England, and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He has authored A Directory of Distinguished British Jews, 1830-1930 and other works.

HILARY L. RUBINSTEIN is a former Research Fellow in History at the University of Melbourne, Australia. She is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and a member of the Council of the Navy Records Society. Her works include, as co-author, Philosemitism (Palgrave Macmillan, 1999) and The Jews in the Modern World since 1750 (2002).


Biography [ edit ]

She graduated with a BA(Hons) in economics, history and politics at Keele University in England, having spent a year on an exchange scholarship at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and subsequently gained a master's degree in librarianship from Simmons College, Massachusetts and a PhD in history for her thesis titled 'King Campbell: The public career of the Marquess of Argyll (1607?-1661)' from the Australian National University. Α]

A Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, she spent two years (1991–93) as a research fellow in history at the University of Melbourne and from 2013-15 was an adjunct research fellow at the Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation, Monash University. She is an editor of the Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal. Β] She appeared in Bitter Herbs and Honey, directed by Monique Schwarz, a nostalgic look at Jewish settlement in the inner Melbourne suburb of Carlton. Γ] She was Australian correspondent for the American Jewish Committee's American Jewish Year Book from 1992 to 1996 inclusive. Δ] In 2018 she took over from Suzanne Rutland as Australian representative on the editorial board of the Jewish Women's Archive's Shalvi/HymanEncyclopedia of Jewish Women project. Ε]

She has contributed entries to both the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) and the Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB). From 2007-2010 she served on the Council of the Navy Records Society, Ζ] for which she more recently edited the papers of Admiral Sir Philip Durham. Her latest book, a study of the sinking of HMS Royal George in 1782, has been described as "surely the definitive account of the sinking of the Royal George". Η] An aspect of it was featured on the popular History Hit website. ⎖]

On 26 January 2021, Rubinstein was awarded a Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM) for 'service to community history through a range of roles'. ⎗]


The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History

This authoritative and comprehensive guide to key people and events in Anglo-Jewish history stretches from Cromwell's re-admittance of the Jews in 1656 to the present day and contains nearly 3000 entries, the vast majority of which are not featured in any other sources.

WILLIAM D. RUBINSTEIN is Professor of Modern History at the University of Aberystwyth, UKand a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He has published widely on modern British history and on modern Jewish history, and was President of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 2002-2004. His works include A History of the Jews in the English-Speaking World: Great Britain (Palgrave Macmillan 1996), The Myth of Rescue (1997), and Israel, the Jews and the West: The Fall and Rise of Antisemitism (2008).

MICHAEL JOLLES is a member of the Council of the Jewish Historical Society of England, and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He has authored A Directory of Distinguished British Jews, 1830-1930 and other works.

HILARY L. RUBINSTEIN is a former Research Fellow in History at the University of Melbourne, Australia. She is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and a member of the Council of the Navy Records Society. Her works include, as co-author, Philosemitism (Palgrave Macmillan, 1999) and The Jews in the Modern World since 1750 (2002).

'An extraordinarily important historical tool '

- Jonathan Romain, The Guardian

'This comprehensive dictionary can be recommended to anyone interested in the remarkable history of the Jews of Britain. Its editors are to be congratulated on a major achievement. The reading and research that have gone into this book have been formidable. The result is that the reader meets the whole spectrum of British Jewish contribution, through the centuries and across the length and breadth of the country. Jewish institutions - such as the Chief Rabbinate and the Board of Deputies of British Jews - and moments in Anglo-Jewish history, - such as the Battle of Cable Street - are also included, as are the cities and towns in which Jews lived, and to whose municipal life they contributed.'

'In his introduction, the editor-in-chief, Professor William D Rubenstein, asks rhetorically whether a second edition of the volume will ever appear. I hope very much that it will. The Palgrave dictionary is a work of considerable scholarship and (I suspect) a labour of love.' - Geoffrey Alderman, The Jewish Chronicle online


Dr. Lawrence Rubinstein

Lawrence Rubinstein received a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from the Univ. of Maryland (1978). He has been in the Biometrics Research Program, NCI since 1985. He has published in a variety of areas relating to both clinical and pre-clinical studies. He helped to define methods for determining the required sample size in phase 3 studies. He has been involved in developing new designs for phase 0 trials and phase 1 trials and defining appropriate designs for phase 2 trials. He was involved with establishing and updating the RECIST response criteria, and participated in a 10-year review of phase 1 trial risks and benefits. He participated in the development of the in-vitro assay analysis tools used for the NCI human tumor cell line screen, and was responsible for statistical analyses that determined the degree of correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo results, for that screen, and phase 2 clinical results. His current responsibilities involve primary statistical review and advising capacities on NCI/CTEP clinical studies, helping to design and analyze NCI/DCTD pre-clinical and early clinical studies, as well as service on data monitoring committees, national clinical trials steering committees, and statistical liaison responsibilities with national cancer clinical trials organizations. He is on the editorial boards of CCR and JNCI.

Research Interests

Design, monitoring and analysis of clinical trials pre-clinical drug screening and developmental clinical trials gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system cancer.

Selected Publications:

Therasse, P, Arbuck, SG, Eisenhauer, EA, Wanders, J, Kaplan, RS, Rubinstein, L Verweij, J, van Glabbeke, M, van Oosterom, A, Christian, MC, Gwyther, SG, New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors, JNCI, 92:205-16, 2000.

Rubinstein, LV, Therapeutic studies, in Kramer, B.S. and Allegra, C.J. (eds.), Understanding Clinical Trials, Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. W.B. Saunders Co.,14(4):849-876, 2000.

Johnson, JI, Decker, S, Zaharevitz, D, Rubinstein, LV, Schepartz, SA, Venditti, JM, Kalyandrug, S, Arbuck, SG, Christian, M, Sausville, EA, Correlations between the National Cancer Institute USA, pre-clinical models and drug activity in human clinical trials, British Journal of Cancer, 84(10):1424-31, 2001.

Rubinstein LV and Simon RM: Phase I clinical trial design. In Budman, Calvert, Rowinsky, (eds.), Handbook of Anticancer Drug Development, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 297-308, 2003.

Hunsberger, SA, Rubinstein, LV, Dancey, J, Korn, EL, Dose escalation trial designs based on a molecularly targeted endpoint, Statistics in Medicine, 24:2171-2181, 2005.

Horstmann, E, McCabe, MS, Grochow, L, Yamamoto, S, Rubinstein, L, Budd, T, Shoemaker, D, Emanuel, EJ, Grady, C, Risks and benefits of phase 1 oncology research: Evaluating response rates and toxicities 1991-2002, New England Journal of Medicine, 352:895-904, 2005.

Rubinstein, LV, Korn, EL, Freidlin, B, Hunsberger, SA, Ivy, SP, Smith, MA, Randomized phase 2 design issues and a proposal for phase 2 screening trials, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23:7199-7206, 2005.

Kummar, S, Kinders, R, Rubinstein, L, Parchment, RE, Murgo, AJ, Collins, J, Pickeral, O, Low, J, Steinberg, SM, Gutierrez, M, Yang, S, Helman, L, Wiltrout, R, Tomaszewski, JE and Doroshow, JH, Compressing drug development timelines in oncology using phase '0' trials, Nature Reviews Cancer 7, 131-139, 2007.

Rubinstein, L, Dancey, J, Korn, E, Smith, M, and Wright, J, Early average change in tumor size in a phase 2 trial: efficient endpoint or false promise?, Jour of the National Cancer Inst 99, 1422-23, 2007.

Kinders, R, Parchment, RE, Ji, J, Kummar, S, Murgo, AJ, Gutierrez, M, Collins, J, Rubinstein, L, Pickeral, O, Steinberg, SM, Yang, S, Hollingshead, M, Chen, A, Helman, L, Wiltrout, R, Simpson, M, Tomaszewski, JE and Doroshow JH, Phase 0 clinical trials in cancer drug development: From FDA guidance to clinical practice, Molecular Interventions 7, 325-334, 2008.

Kummar, S, Rubinstein, L, Kinders, R, Parchment, RE, Gutierrez, M, Murgo, AJ, Ji, J, Mroczkowski, B, Pickeral, O, Simpson, M, Hollingshead, M, Yang, S, Helman, L, Wiltrout, R, Collins, J, Tomaszewski, JE, Doroshow, JH, Phase 0 clinical trials: conceptions and misconceptions, The Cancer Journal 14, 133-137, 2008.

Eisenhauer, EA, Therasse, P, Bogaerts, J, Schwartz, LH, Sargent, D, Ford, R, Dancey, J, Arbuck, S, Gwyther, S, Mooney, M, Rubinstein, L, Shankar, L, Dodd, L, Kaplan, R, Lacombe, D, Verweij, J, New response evaluation criteria in solid tumors: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1), European Journal of Cancer 45, 228-247, 2009.

Dancey, J, Dodd, LE, Ford, R, Kaplan, R, Mooney, M, Rubinstein, L, Schwartz, LH, Shankar, L, Therasse, P, Recommendations for the assessment of progression in randomized cancer treatment trials, European Journal of Cancer 45, 281-289, 2009.

Sargent, DJ, Rubinstein, L, Schwartz, L, Dancey, JE, Gatsonis, C, Dodd, LE, Shankar, LK, Validation of novel imaging methodologies for use as cancer clinical trial endpoints, European Journal of Cancer 45, 290-299, 2009.

Rubinstein, L, Crowley, J, Ivy, P, LeBlanc, M, Sargent, D, Randomized phase II designs, Clinical Cancer Research 15, 1883-1890, 2009.

Sill, M and Rubinstein, L, Design (and monitoring) of clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints, in Design, summarization, analysis & interpretation of clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints, ed. Peace, K., Chapman-Hall, p. 15-69, 2009.

Kummar, S, Kinders, R, Gutierrez, M, Rubinstein, L, Parchment, RE Phillips, LR, Ji, J, Monks, A, Low, J, Chen, A, Murgo, AJ, Collins, J, Steinberg, S, Eliopoulos, H, Giranda, VL, Gordon, G, Helman, L, Wiltrout, R, Tomaszewski, JE, Doroshow, JH, and the NCI Phase 0 Working Group, Phase 0 Clinical Trial of the Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitor ABT-888 in Patients With Advanced Malignancies, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27:2705-2711, 2009.

Seymour, L, Ivy, P, Sargent, D, Spriggs, D, Baker, L, Rubinstein, L, Ratain, M, LeBlanc, M, Stewart, D, Crowley, J, Groshen, S, Humphrey, J, West, P, Berry, D, The Design of Phase II Clinical Trials Testing Cancer Therapeutics: Consensus Recommendations from the Clinical Trials Task Force and the Investigational Drug Steering Committee, Clinical Cancer Research, 16: 1764-69, 2010.

Ivy, P, Siu, L, Garrett-Mayer, E, Rubinstein, L, Approaches to phase 1 clinical trial design focused on safety, efficiency and selected patient populations: a report from the Clinical Trial Design Task Force of the NCI IDSC, Clinical Cancer Research, 16: 1726-36, 2010.

Rubinstein, L, Steinberg, S, Kummar, S, Kinders, R, Parchment, R, Murgo, A, Tomaszeweski, J, Doroshow, J, Statistics of phase 0 designs, Statistics in Medicine 20, 1072-1076, 2010.

Rubinstein, L, LeBlanc, M, Smith, M, More randomization in phase II trials: necessary but not sufficient, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 103: 1075-1077, 2011.

Sill, M, Rubinstein, L, Litwin, S, Yothers, G, A method for utilizing bivariate efficacy outcome measures to screen agents for activity in 2-stage phase 2 clinical trials, Clinical Trials, 9: 385-395, 2012.

Gupta, S, Boerner, SA, Alqwasmi, A, Hunsberger, S, Rubinstein, L, Royds, R, Ivy, Lorusso, P, Meta-analysis of the relationship between increasing dose and clinical benefit in phase 1 trials of molecularly targeted agents, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 104: 1860-1866, 2012.

Chen, HX, Rubinstein, LV, Shankar, LK, Abrams, JS, Are we ready for the 10% solution, The Oncologist, 19: 439-440, 2014.

Rubinstein, L, Phase II design: history and evolution, Chinese Clinical Oncology, 3:48-59, 2014.

Kummar, S, Williams, M, Lih, C-J, Polley, EC, Chen, AP, Rubinstein, LV, Zhao, Y, Simon, RM, Conley, BA, Doroshow, JH, Application of Molecular Profiling in Clinical Trials for Refractory Cancers, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 107, 2015.

Gilbert, G, Rubinstein, L, Lesser, G, Creating Clinical Trial Designs that Incorporate Clinical Outcome Assessments, Neuro-Oncology, 18 (suppl 2): ii21-25, 2016.

Kummar, S, Do, K, Coyne, G O, Chen, A, Ji, J, Rubinstein, L, Doroshow, JH, Establishing Proof of Mechanism: Assessing Target Modulation in Early-phase Clinical Trials, Seminars in Oncology, 43(4), 446-452, 2016.

Massett, HA, Mishkin, G, Rubinstein, L, Ivy, P, Denicoff, A, Godwin, E, DiPiazza, K, Bolognese, J, Zwiebel, J, Abrams, J, Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual, Clinical Cancer Research, 22(22), 5408-16, 2016.

Holbeck, SL, Camalier, R, Crowell, J, Govindharajulu, J, Hollingshead, M, Hose, M, Polley, E, Rubinstein, L, Schweikart, K, Srivastava, A, Svetlik, P, Wilsker, D, Collins, JM, and Doroshow, JH, The National Cancer Institute ALMANAC: A Comprehensive Screening Resource for the Detection of Anticancer Drug Pairs with Enhanced Therapeutic Activity, Cancer Research, 77(13), 3564-3576, 2017.

Mehnert, JM, Monjazeb, AM, Beerthuijzen, JMT, Collyar, D, Rubinstein, L, Harris, LN, The challenge for development of valuable immune-oncology biomarkers, Clinical Cancer Research, 23(17), 4970-4979, 2017.

Seidman, AD, Bordeleau, L, Fehrenbacher, L, Barlow, WE, Perlmutter, J, Rubinstein, L, Wedam, SB, Hershman, DL, Hayes, JF, Butler, LP, Smith, ML, Regan, MM, Beaver, JA, Amiri-Kordestani, L, Rastogi, P, Zujewski, JA, Korde, LA, NCI Breast cancer steering committee working group report on meaningful and appropriate endpoints for clinical trials in metastatic breast cancer, JCO, 36: 3259-3268, 2018.

Lynce, F, Blackburn, MJ, Cai, L, Wang, H, Rubinstein, L, Harris, P, Isaacs, C, Pohlmann, PR, Characteristics and outcomes of breast cancer patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program sponsored phase I clinical trials, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 168:35-41, 2018.

Evans, DM, Fang, J, Silvers, T, Delosh, R, Laudeman, J, Ogle, C, Reinhart, R, Selby, M, Connelly, J, Harris, E, Krushkal, J, Rubinstein, L, Doroshow, JH, Collins, JM, Teicher, BA, Exposure Time versus Cytotoxicity for Anticancer Agents, Cancer Chem and Pharmac, Cancer Chem and Pharm, 84(2): 359-371, 2019.

Hirakawa, A, Sudo, K, Yonemori, K, Kinoshita, F, Kobayashi, Y, Okuma, HS, Kawachi, A, Tamura, K, Fujiwara, Y, Rubinstein, L, Takebe, N, A comparative study of longitudinal toxicity of cancer drug treatments, Clin Pharmac and Ther, 106(4): 803-809, 2019.

Armstrong, TS, Dirven, L, Arons, D, Bates, A, Chang, S, Coens, C, Espinasse, C, Gilbert, MR, Jenkinson, D, Kluetz, P, Mendoza, T, Rubinstein, L, Sul, J, Weller, M, Wen, P, Vandenbent, M, Taphoorn, M, Glioma Patient Reported Outcome Assessment in Clinical Care and Research: A RANO Collaborative Report, The Lancet Oncology, 21(2): e97-103, 2020.

Lee, YC, Wang, L, Kohn, EC, Rubinstein, L, Ivy, SP, Harris, P, Lheureux, S, Evaluation of toxicities related to novel therapy in clinical trials for patients with gynaecologic cancers, Cancer, 126(10): pp. 2139-2145, 2020.

Office Address:
Room 5W106
9609 Medical Center Dr
Rockville, MD 20850


Author updates

On August 29th, 1782, the mighty flagship HMS Royal George suddenly capsized while anchored in the calm, familiar waters of Spithead on the English Channel. In one of the most sensational and perplexing incidents in naval history, Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, an outstanding veteran officer, drowned along with more than 800 crew and many civilian visitors.

Catastrophe at Spithead is the first comprehensive account of the sinking, drawn from a variety of archival sources, including reports by survivors and eyewitnesses. Hilary L. Rubinstein examines the mysterious cause and tragic cost of the disaster, as well as its lingering aftereffects, including its treatment in literature.

As well as describing the sinking, Rubenstein uncovers new information on the life and career of Rear Admiral Kempenfelt, ranging from his familial relation to the great Admiral Rodney to accounts of his whereabouts when the ship sank. These call into question the scenario in William Cowper's famous poem, “On the Sinking of the Royal George,” which depicts Kempenfelt writing in his cabin when she foundered.

Admiral Sir Philip Durham (1763–1845) was one of the most distinguished and colourful officers of the late Georgian Navy. His lucky and sometimes controversial career included surviving the sinking of HMS Royal George in 1782, making the first conquest of the tricolour flag in 1793 and the last in 1815, and having two enemy ships surrender to him at Trafalgar.

A Scot distantly related to Lord Barham, Durham entered the Navy in 1777, serving initially on the American and West Indies stations. He was Kempenfelt's signal officer on HMS Victory during the second battle of Ushant in 1781 and on the Royal George. Making his reputation initially as the daring young master and commander of HMS Spitfire early in the French Revolutionary War, he became a crack frigate captain with a fortune in prize money, and commanded HMS Defiance at Trafalgar, where he was wounded. He ended his war service as Commander-in-Chief, Leeward Islands. En voyage he artfully captured two brand-new French frigates which were subsequently taken into the service of Britain, and during his tenure he won the heartfelt gratitude of local merchants by ridding the surrounding seas of American privateers preying on British trading vessels. True to form, he clashed with the judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court on Antigua and with the general with whom he led a combined naval and military assault on Martinique and Guadeloupe following Napoleon's escape from Elba. He later served as Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth having resigned his parliamentary seat to do so.

Married first to the sister of the Earl of Elgin, of 'Marbles' fame, and secondly to a cousin of 'sea wolf' Lord Cochrane, he was well-known to George III, who as a result of Durham's amusing yet improbable anecdotes, dubbed any tall tale he heard 'a Durham'. This collection of his papers consists mainly of letters and despatches relating to his service in the Channel Fleet, the Mediterranean, and the Leeward Islands. Correspondence with his parents during 1789–1790 reflects his anxieties relating to employment and prospects for promotion when he was a young lieutenant with an illegitimate child to support. The collection, featuring items from and to him, comprises a fascinating and informative set of documents.


Helena Rubinstein

Founder of the eponymous company bought by L&rsquoOréal in 1984, Helena Rubinstein defined her era with her desire to unite science and beauty, her understanding of women, and her distinct love of art. In 2020, part of her singular collection of African and Oceanic art will exhibited in Paris.

&ldquoThe Empress of Beauty.&rdquo Jean Cocteau&rsquos nickname for Helena Rubinstein speaks volumes about the astonishing success of this audacious lady. The first &ldquoself-made woman&rdquo, she was far ahead of her time and delighted in every form of beauty. From the Jewish ghetto in Krakow, Poland, where she grew up, to the powerful circles of New York, London and Paris that she conquered with nothing but her own hard work, Helena Rubinstein left a lasting footprint on the modern cosmetics industry.

Collector and admirer of African art, her personal collection is now the subject of an unprecedented exhibit in Paris. Here is a look at her extraordinary personality and life.

From Krakow to Australia

Chaja [Helena] Rubinstein, the eldest of eight girls, was not born great nothing about her childhood indicated that she would finish her life at the head of an international cosmetic empire. She was born in 1872 in a traditional society at a time when few women ran their own companies. But the young woman with porcelain skin showed early signs of an assertive and independent character, refusing a marriage arranged by her parents. At only 24, Helena Rubinstein emigrated alone to Australia to live with her uncle, where she discovered her talent for helping women beautify their skin. As her luminous complexion was often the object of compliments from locals whose skin had been dried out by the sun, she revised the formula of a face cream her mother had given her before her journey. The moisturizing Valaze cream (which means &ldquogift from heaven&rdquo in Hungarian), was her brand&rsquos first success story.

A Hard Worker

Chaja, who was now called Helena, opened the world&rsquos first beauty salon in Melbourne in 1902. She opened two more before returning to Europe, this time to London. Thanks to her relentless work, her company grew rapidly in France and Germany, reaching the United States at the beginning of World War I. &ldquoHard work keeps the wrinkles out of the mind and spirit,&rdquo said the woman whose first husband nicknamed her &ldquoMadam&rdquo. Her outstanding business skills caught the world&rsquos attention in 1929 when she bought back her own company in America for 1.5 million dollars, after having sold it to the Lehman Brothers the year before. This fascinating transaction that made her one of the richest women in the United States.

&ldquoBeauty Owes Everything to Science&rdquo

Helena Rubinstein owes her success to her avant-garde spirit. Early on, she surrounded herself with doctors, dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons to deepen her technical knowledge. In 1910, she identified the first classification for skin according to its nature and needs: oily skin, combination skin or dry skin. She was also the first to submit her products to rigorous scientific testing. &ldquoBeauty owes everything to science&rdquo, she stated. In 1939, she bought the patent for the first waterproof mascara, which she presented during an aquatic ballet to prove its effectiveness.

She professionalized the role of estheticians &mdash focusing especially on rules around hygiene &mdash and opened the first school dedicated to their training. In the early 1950s, she launched a line of cosmetics for men with its own salon. It was undoubtedly too avant-garde, as it closed soon after it opened.


Author Updates

On August 29th, 1782, the mighty flagship HMS Royal George suddenly capsized while anchored in the calm, familiar waters of Spithead on the English Channel. In one of the most sensational and perplexing incidents in naval history, Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, an outstanding veteran officer, drowned along with more than 800 crew and many civilian visitors.

Catastrophe at Spithead is the first comprehensive account of the sinking, drawn from a variety of archival sources, including reports by survivors and eyewitnesses. Hilary L. Rubinstein examines the mysterious cause and tragic cost of the disaster, as well as its lingering aftereffects, including its treatment in literature.

As well as describing the sinking, Rubenstein uncovers new information on the life and career of Rear Admiral Kempenfelt, ranging from his familial relation to the great Admiral Rodney to accounts of his whereabouts when the ship sank. These call into question the scenario in William Cowper's famous poem, “On the Sinking of the Royal George,” which depicts Kempenfelt writing in his cabin when she foundered.

Admiral Sir Philip Durham (1763–1845) was one of the most distinguished and colourful officers of the late Georgian Navy. His lucky and sometimes controversial career included surviving the sinking of HMS Royal George in 1782, making the first conquest of the tricolour flag in 1793 and the last in 1815, and having two enemy ships surrender to him at Trafalgar.

A Scot distantly related to Lord Barham, Durham entered the Navy in 1777, serving initially on the American and West Indies stations. He was Kempenfelt's signal officer on HMS Victory during the second battle of Ushant in 1781 and on the Royal George. Making his reputation initially as the daring young master and commander of HMS Spitfire early in the French Revolutionary War, he became a crack frigate captain with a fortune in prize money, and commanded HMS Defiance at Trafalgar, where he was wounded. He ended his war service as Commander-in-Chief, Leeward Islands. En voyage he artfully captured two brand-new French frigates which were subsequently taken into the service of Britain, and during his tenure he won the heartfelt gratitude of local merchants by ridding the surrounding seas of American privateers preying on British trading vessels. True to form, he clashed with the judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court on Antigua and with the general with whom he led a combined naval and military assault on Martinique and Guadeloupe following Napoleon's escape from Elba. He later served as Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth having resigned his parliamentary seat to do so.

Married first to the sister of the Earl of Elgin, of 'Marbles' fame, and secondly to a cousin of 'sea wolf' Lord Cochrane, he was well-known to George III, who as a result of Durham's amusing yet improbable anecdotes, dubbed any tall tale he heard 'a Durham'. This collection of his papers consists mainly of letters and despatches relating to his service in the Channel Fleet, the Mediterranean, and the Leeward Islands. Correspondence with his parents during 1789–1790 reflects his anxieties relating to employment and prospects for promotion when he was a young lieutenant with an illegitimate child to support. The collection, featuring items from and to him, comprises a fascinating and informative set of documents.


The Jews in Australia Enlarge text Shrink text

Vol. I, covering the period 1788-1945, was written by H.L. Rubinstein. Ch. 7 (pp. 471-528), "Antisemitism, Philosemitism and the Image of the Jews in Australia, 1788-1945, " states that antisemitism seldom reached significant levels among the general population, but was confined mainly to social discrimination or propounded by labor movement populists and the extreme-right or left wings of the political spectrum. Refers also to antisemitic stereotypes in the press, literature, caricatures racist antisemitism and anti-refugee feeling in the 1930s antisemitic organizations and antisemitic and philosemitic Christians. Vol. II, by W.D. Rubinstein, covers the period 1945 to the present. Ch. 7 (pp. 379-499), "Antisemitism and Communal Relations since 1945, " describes the outburst of hostility during the first few years after the war, due to fear of refugee immigration and to "Jewish terrorism" in Palestine. Describes the antisemitic Australian League of Rights, founded in 1946 neo-Nazi and left-wing anti-Zionist propaganda and actions and Jewish and general organizations established to fight racism and antisemitism. (From the Bibliography of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism)

Details
Title The Jews in Australia : a thematic history / Hilary L. Rubinstein.
Co-Author Rubinstein, W. D.
Publisher Port Melbourne, Vic : W. Heinemann Australia
Creation Date 1991
Content Contents: v.1. 1788-1945 -- v.2. 1945 to the present.
Notes Vol. 2 by W.D. Rubinstein.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Format 2 v : ill., ports
26 cm.
Language English
System Number 990011667770205171
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Description

The history of the Jewish people has been characterized by persecution, hatred, exile, and genocide but also by economic prosperity, cultural vibrancy, and social achievement. Endemic antisemitism in Continental Europe and the disaster of the Holocaust are part of the story, but so too is the tendency in the English-speaking world to a more positive estimation of the Jewish contribution.

During the past 30 years, the study of modern Jewish history has moved from the periphery to the centre of academic historiography. The authors of this bold new history have provided a comprehensive and up-to-date review, charting and analysing the modern Jewish world in the period since the Enlightenment. As well as covering the Holocaust, the Diaspora and the Arab-Israeli conflict, the authors have examined antisemitism and philosemitism, Sephardi and Oriental Jewry, the development of Zionism, and the role of women in Judaism. Only by putting longer term trends and dynamics into perspective can we hope to reach a better understanding of the experiences that have formed some of the most turbulent events of modern times.


Watch the video: Beethoven. A. Rubinstein, October 29, 1944: Piano Concerto No. 3 in C minor - A. Toscanini (August 2022).