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Huan T'ai composite cruiser

Huan T'ai composite cruiser

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Huan T'ai composite cruiser

The Huan T'ai was the third of a series of light cruisers built in China for the Chinese Nanyang fleet, and remained in service for fifteen years before lost in a collision with the liner Empress of India.

The three Chinese-built cruisers were all of composite construction, with iron frames ordered from Germany and a wooden hull. They had a single funnel and could make 15kts under steam when first built. By the time they were completed composite construction ships was already obsolete, and the Chinese northern (Peiyang) fleet had already received one protected cruiser, the Tsi Yuen. Two similar cruisers were built in Germany, with steel hulls (Nan Ch'en and Nan Shui), so were a little less vulnerable.

The Kai Chi had been armed with Krupp guns. The Huan T'ai and her sister ship Ching Ch'ing used Armstrong breach-loading guns instead, replacing the two 8in guns of the Kai Chi with three 7in guns. Two of the 7in guns were carried in sponsons mounted just in front of the funnel and the third was on the poop deck. They also carried four 4.7in BL guns on the broadside, two in aft sponsons and one in the bow, and two 14in Whitehead torpedo tubes, carried amidships.

The Huan T'ai was completed in 1887 and joined the Nanyang fleet.

In the aftermath of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 the Huan T'ai had her 7in guns replaced with two 6in quick firing guns in the sponsons and one 4.7in quick firing gun on the poop deck.

After the war China lost Port Arthur, but international pressure meant that Japan soon had to hand her back. The Huan T'ai was part of a squadron from the Nanyang fleet that briefly restored the Chinese presence in her northern water, before further international pressure forced her to surrender Port Arthur to Russian and Wei-Hai-Wei to Britain.

On the night of 17 August 1902 the Huan T'ai was on her way to Hong Kong when she altered course to avoid a junk. At the same time the liner Empress of India (5,905t, 16kts) was passing. The heavier liner sliced into the aging cruiser at 14 knots, and early on 18 August the Huan T'ai sank, taking many of her crew with her.


Huang Tai



Top Speed






Armament as built

Three 7in Armstrong BL guns
Seven 40pdr BL gns
Two torpedo tubes

Crew complement


Laid down

12 January 1884


November 1886


30 August 1887

Lost in collision

17 August 1903

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Precursors to IQ testing Edit

Historically, even before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life. [21] [22] Those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based primarily on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure.

The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was largely a product of heredity (by which he did not mean genes, although he did develop several pre-Mendelian theories of particulate inheritance). [23] [24] [25] He hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, and head size. [26] He set up the first mental testing center in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, and he eventually abandoned this research. [27] [28]

French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities. It was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, [29] but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" (not "slow") and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. [30] The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks usually passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0. (Fancher, 1985). Binet thought that intelligence was multifaceted, but came under the control of practical judgment.

In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures (White, 2000). American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (1916). It became the most popular test in the United States for decades. [29] [31] [32] [33]

General factor (g) Edit

The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content. Some test items are visual, while many are verbal. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge.

The British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across seemingly unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, and reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests. He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large number of narrow task-specific ability factors. Spearman named it g for "general factor" and labeled the specific factors or abilities for specific tasks s. [34] In any collection of test items that make up an IQ test, the score that best measures g is the composite score that has the highest correlations with all the item scores. Typically, the "g-loaded" composite score of an IQ test battery appears to involve a common strength in abstract reasoning across the test's item content. [ citation needed ]

United States military selection in World War I Edit

During World War I, the Army needed a way to evaluate and assign recruits to appropriate tasks. This led to the development of several mental tests by Robert Yerkes, who worked with major hereditarians of American psychometrics—including Terman, Goddard—to write the test. [35] The testing generated controversy and much public debate in the United States. Nonverbal or "performance" tests were developed for those who could not speak English or were suspected of malingering. [29] Based on Goddard's translation of the Binet-Simon test, the tests had an impact in screening men for officer training:

. the tests did have a strong impact in some areas, particularly in screening men for officer training. At the start of the war, the army and national guard maintained nine thousand officers. By the end, two hundred thousand officers presided, and two- thirds of them had started their careers in training camps where the tests were applied. In some camps, no man scoring below C could be considered for officer training. [35]

1.75 million men were tested in total, making the results the first mass-produced written tests of intelligence, though considered dubious and non-usable, for reasons including high variability of test implementation throughout different camps and questions testing for familiarity with American culture rather than intelligence. [35] After the war, positive publicity promoted by army psychologists helped to make psychology a respected field. [36] Subsequently, there was an increase in jobs and funding in psychology in the United States. [37] Group intelligence tests were developed and became widely used in schools and industry. [38]

The results of these tests, which at the time reaffirmed contemporary racism and nationalism, are considered controversial and dubious, having rested on certain contested assumptions: that intelligence was heritable, innate, and could be relegated to a single number, the tests were enacted systematically, and test questions actually tested for innate intelligence rather than subsuming environmental factors. [35] The tests also allowed for the bolstering of jingoist narratives in the context of increased immigration, which may have influenced the passing of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. [35]

L.L. Thurstone argued for a model of intelligence that included seven unrelated factors (verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, reasoning, and induction). While not widely used, Thurstone's model influenced later theories. [29]

David Wechsler produced the first version of his test in 1939. It gradually became more popular and overtook the Stanford-Binet in the 1960s. It has been revised several times, as is common for IQ tests, to incorporate new research. One explanation is that psychologists and educators wanted more information than the single score from the Binet. Wechsler's ten or more subtests provided this. Another is that the Stanford-Binet test reflected mostly verbal abilities, while the Wechsler test also reflected nonverbal abilities. The Stanford-Binet has also been revised several times and is now similar to the Wechsler in several aspects, but the Wechsler continues to be the most popular test in the United States. [29]

IQ testing and the eugenics movement in the United States Edit

Eugenics, a set of beliefs and practices aimed at improving the genetic quality of the human population by excluding people and groups judged to be inferior and promoting those judged to be superior, [39] [40] [41] played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II. [42] [43]

The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of the British Scientist Sir Francis Galton. In 1883, Galton first used the word eugenics to describe the biological improvement of human genes and the concept of being "well-born". [44] [45] He believed that differences in a person's ability were acquired primarily through genetics and that eugenics could be implemented through selective breeding in order for the human race to improve in its overall quality, therefore allowing for humans to direct their own evolution. [46]

Goddard was a eugenicist. In 1908, he published his own version, The Binet and Simon Test of Intellectual Capacity, and cordially promoted the test. He quickly extended the use of the scale to the public schools (1913), to immigration (Ellis Island, 1914) and to a court of law (1914). [47]

Unlike Galton, who promoted eugenics through selective breeding for positive traits, Goddard went with the US eugenics movement to eliminate "undesirable" traits. [48] Goddard used the term "feeble-minded" to refer to people who did not perform well on the test. He argued that "feeble-mindedness" was caused by heredity, and thus feeble-minded people should be prevented from giving birth, either by institutional isolation or sterilization surgeries. [47] At first, sterilization targeted the disabled, but was later extended to poor people. Goddard's intelligence test was endorsed by the eugenicists to push for laws for forced sterilization. Different states adopted the sterilization laws at different paces. These laws, whose constitutionality was upheld by the Supreme Court in their 1927 ruling Buck v. Bell, forced over 64,000 people to go through sterilization in the United States. [49]

California's sterilization program was so effective that the Nazis turned to the government for advice on how to prevent the birth of the "unfit". [50] While the US eugenics movement lost much of its momentum in the 1940s in view of the horrors of Nazi Germany, advocates of eugenics (including Nazi geneticist Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer) continued to work and promote their ideas in the United States. [50] In later decades, some eugenic principles have made a resurgence as a voluntary means of selective reproduction, with some calling them "new eugenics". [51] As it becomes possible to test for and correlate genes with IQ (and its proxies), [52] ethicists and embryonic genetic testing companies are attempting to understand the ways in which the technology can be ethically deployed. [53]

Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory Edit

Raymond Cattell (1941) proposed two types of cognitive abilities in a revision of Spearman's concept of general intelligence. Fluid intelligence (Gf) was hypothesized as the ability to solve novel problems by using reasoning, and crystallized intelligence (Gc) was hypothesized as a knowledge-based ability that was very dependent on education and experience. In addition, fluid intelligence was hypothesized to decline with age, while crystallized intelligence was largely resistant to the effects of aging. The theory was almost forgotten, but was revived by his student John L. Horn (1966) who later argued Gf and Gc were only two among several factors, and who eventually identified nine or ten broad abilities. The theory continued to be called Gf-Gc theory. [29]

John B. Carroll (1993), after a comprehensive reanalysis of earlier data, proposed the three stratum theory, which is a hierarchical model with three levels. The bottom stratum consists of narrow abilities that are highly specialized (e.g., induction, spelling ability). The second stratum consists of broad abilities. Carroll identified eight second-stratum abilities. Carroll accepted Spearman's concept of general intelligence, for the most part, as a representation of the uppermost, third stratum. [54] [55]

In 1999, a merging of the Gf-Gc theory of Cattell and Horn with Carroll's Three-Stratum theory has led to the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory (CHC Theory), with g as the top of the hierarchy, ten broad abilities below, and further subdivided into seventy narrow abilities on the third stratum. CHC Theory has greatly influenced many of the current broad IQ tests. [29]

Modern tests do not necessarily measure all of these broad abilities. For example, quantitative knowledge and reading & writing ability may be seen as measures of school achievement and not IQ. [29] Decision speed may be difficult to measure without special equipment. g was earlier often subdivided into only Gf and Gc, which were thought to correspond to the nonverbal or performance subtests and verbal subtests in earlier versions of the popular Wechsler IQ test. More recent research has shown the situation to be more complex. [29] Modern comprehensive IQ tests do not stop at reporting a single IQ score. Although they still give an overall score, they now also give scores for many of these more restricted abilities, identifying particular strengths and weaknesses of an individual. [29]

Other theories Edit

An alternative to standard IQ tests, meant to test the proximal development of children, originated in the writings of psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) during his last two years of his life. [56] [57] According to Vygotsky, the maximum level of complexity and difficulty of problems that a child is capable to solve under some guidance indicates their level of potential development. The difference between this level of potential and the lower level of unassisted performance indicates the child's zone of proximal development. [58] Combination of the two indexes—the level of actual and the zone of the proximal development—according to Vygotsky, provides a significantly more informative indicator of psychological development than the assessment of the level of actual development alone. [59] [60] His ideas on the zone of development were later developed in a number of psychological and educational theories and practices, most notably under the banner of dynamic assessment, which seeks to measure developmental potential [61] [62] [63] (for instance, in the work of Reuven Feuerstein and his associates, [64] who has criticized standard IQ testing for its putative assumption or acceptance of "fixed and immutable" characteristics of intelligence or cognitive functioning). Dynamic assessment has been further elaborated in the work of Ann Brown, and John D. Bransford and in theories of multiple intelligences authored by Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg. [65] [66]

J.P. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (1967) model of intelligence used three dimensions, which, when combined, yielded a total of 120 types of intelligence. It was popular in the 1970s and early 1980s, but faded owing to both practical problems and theoretical criticisms. [29]

Alexander Luria's earlier work on neuropsychological processes led to the PASS theory (1997). It argued that only looking at one general factor was inadequate for researchers and clinicians who worked with learning disabilities, attention disorders, intellectual disability, and interventions for such disabilities. The PASS model covers four kinds of processes (planning process, attention/arousal process, simultaneous processing, and successive processing). The planning processes involve decision making, problem solving, and performing activities and require goal setting and self-monitoring.

The attention/arousal process involves selectively attending to a particular stimulus, ignoring distractions, and maintaining vigilance. Simultaneous processing involves the integration of stimuli into a group and requires the observation of relationships. Successive processing involves the integration of stimuli into serial order. The planning and attention/arousal components comes from structures located in the frontal lobe, and the simultaneous and successive processes come from structures located in the posterior region of the cortex. [67] [68] [69] It has influenced some recent IQ tests, and been seen as a complement to the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory described above. [29]

There are a variety of individually administered IQ tests in use in the English-speaking world. [70] [71] The most commonly used individual IQ test series is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for school-age test-takers. Other commonly used individual IQ tests (some of which do not label their standard scores as "IQ" scores) include the current versions of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Cognitive Assessment System, and the Differential Ability Scales.

IQ tests that measure intelligence also include:

IQ scales are ordinally scaled. [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] The raw score of the norming sample is usually (rank order) transformed to a normal distribution with mean 100 and standard deviation 15. [4] While one standard deviation is 15 points, and two SDs are 30 points, and so on, this does not imply that mental ability is linearly related to IQ, such that IQ 50 means half the cognitive ability of IQ 100. In particular, IQ points are not percentage points.

IQ scores can differ to some degree for the same person on different IQ tests, so a person does not always belong to the same IQ score range each time the person is tested. (IQ score table data and pupil pseudonyms adapted from description of KABC-II norming study cited in Kaufman (2009). [80] [81] )
A 90 95 111
B 125 110 105
C 100 93 101
D 116 127 118
E 93 105 93
F 106 105 105
G 95 100 90
H 112 113 103
I 104 96 97
J 101 99 86
K 81 78 75
L 116 124 102

Reliability Edit

Psychometricians generally regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. [14] [82] Reliability represents the measurement consistency of a test. [83] A reliable test produces similar scores upon repetition. [83] On aggregate, IQ tests exhibit high reliability, although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age. Like all statistical quantities, any particular estimate of IQ has an associated standard error that measures uncertainty about the estimate. For modern tests, the confidence interval can be approximately 10 points and reported standard error of measurement can be as low as about three points. [84] Reported standard error may be an underestimate, as it does not account for all sources of error. [85]

Outside influences such as low motivation or high anxiety can occasionally lower a person's IQ test score. [83] For individuals with very low scores, the 95% confidence interval may be greater than 40 points, potentially complicating the accuracy of diagnoses of intellectual disability. [86] By the same token, high IQ scores are also significantly less reliable than those near to the population median. [87] Reports of IQ scores much higher than 160 are considered dubious. [88]

Validity as a measure of intelligence Edit

Reliability and validity are very different concepts. While reliability reflects reproducibility, validity refers to lack of bias. A biased test does not measure what it purports to measure. [83] While IQ tests are generally considered to measure some forms of intelligence, they may fail to serve as an accurate measure of broader definitions of human intelligence inclusive of creativity and social intelligence. For this reason, psychologist Wayne Weiten argues that their construct validity must be carefully qualified, and not be overstated. [83] According to Weiten, "IQ tests are valid measures of the kind of intelligence necessary to do well in academic work. But if the purpose is to assess intelligence in a broader sense, the validity of IQ tests is questionable." [83]

Some scientists have disputed the value of IQ as a measure of intelligence altogether. In The Mismeasure of Man (1981, expanded edition 1996), evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould compared IQ testing with the now-discredited practice of determining intelligence via craniometry, arguing that both are based on the fallacy of reification, “our tendency to convert abstract concepts into entities”. [89] Gould's argument sparked a great deal of debate, [90] [91] and the book is listed as one of Discover Magazine ' s "25 Greatest Science Books of All Time". [92]

Along these same lines, critics such as Keith Stanovich do not dispute the capacity of IQ test scores to predict some kinds of achievement, but argue that basing a concept of intelligence on IQ test scores alone neglects other important aspects of mental ability. [14] [93] Robert Sternberg, another significant critic of IQ as the main measure of human cognitive abilities, argued that reducing the concept of intelligence to the measure of g does not fully account for the different skills and knowledge types that produce success in human society. [94]

Despite these objections, clinical psychologists generally regard IQ scores as having sufficient statistical validity for many clinical purposes. [ specify ] [29] [95]

Test bias or differential item functioning Edit

Differential item functioning (DIF), sometimes referred to as measurement bias, is a phenomenon when participants from different groups (e.g. gender, race, disability) with the same latent abilities give different answers to specific questions on the same IQ test. [96] DIF analysis measures such specific items on a test alongside measuring participants' latent abilities on other similar questions. A consistent different group response to a specific question among similar types of questions can indicate an effect of DIF. It does not count as differential item functioning if both groups have an equally valid chance of giving different responses to the same questions. Such bias can be a result of culture, educational level and other factors that are independent of group traits. DIF is only considered if test-takers from different groups with the same underlying latent ability level have a different chance of giving specific responses. [97] Such questions are usually removed in order to make the test equally fair for both groups. Common techniques for analyzing DIF are item response theory (IRT) based methods, Mantel-Haenszel, and logistic regression. [97]

A 2005 study found that "differential validity in prediction suggests that the WAIS-R test may contain cultural influences that reduce the validity of the WAIS-R as a measure of cognitive ability for Mexican American students," [98] indicating a weaker positive correlation relative to sampled white students. Other recent studies have questioned the culture-fairness of IQ tests when used in South Africa. [99] [100] Standard intelligence tests, such as the Stanford-Binet, are often inappropriate for autistic children the alternative of using developmental or adaptive skills measures are relatively poor measures of intelligence in autistic children, and may have resulted in incorrect claims that a majority of autistic children are of low intelligence. [101]

Flynn effect Edit

Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. [102] [103] [104] When a new version of an IQ test is normed, the standard scoring is set so performance at the population median results in a score of IQ 100. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade. This phenomenon was named the Flynn effect in the book The Bell Curve after James R. Flynn, the author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists. [105] [106]

Researchers have been exploring the issue of whether the Flynn effect is equally strong on performance of all kinds of IQ test items, whether the effect may have ended in some developed nations, whether there are social subgroup differences in the effect, and what possible causes of the effect might be. [107] A 2011 textbook, IQ and Human Intelligence, by N. J. Mackintosh, noted the Flynn effect demolishes the fears that IQ would be decreased. He also asks whether it represents a real increase in intelligence beyond IQ scores. [108] A 2011 psychology textbook, lead authored by Harvard Psychologist Professor Daniel Schacter, noted that humans' inherited intelligence could be going down while acquired intelligence goes up. [109]

Research has revealed that the Flynn effect has slowed or reversed course in several Western countries beginning in the late 20th century. The phenomenon has been termed the negative Flynn effect. [110] [111] A study of Norwegian military conscripts' test records found that IQ scores have been falling for generations born after the year 1975, and that the underlying nature of both initial increasing and subsequent falling trends appears to be environmental rather than genetic. [111]

Age Edit

IQ can change to some degree over the course of childhood. [112] In one longitudinal study, the mean IQ scores of tests at ages 17 and 18 were correlated at r=0.86 with the mean scores of tests at ages five, six, and seven and at r=0.96 [ further explanation needed ] with the mean scores of tests at ages 11, 12, and 13. [14]

For decades, practitioners' handbooks and textbooks on IQ testing have reported IQ declines with age after the beginning of adulthood. However, later researchers pointed out this phenomenon is related to the Flynn effect and is in part a cohort effect rather than a true aging effect. A variety of studies of IQ and aging have been conducted since the norming of the first Wechsler Intelligence Scale drew attention to IQ differences in different age groups of adults. The current consensus is that fluid intelligence generally declines with age after early adulthood, while crystallized intelligence remains intact. Both cohort effects (the birth year of the test-takers) and practice effects (test-takers taking the same form of IQ test more than once) must be controlled to gain accurate data. [ inconsistent ] It is unclear whether any lifestyle intervention can preserve fluid intelligence into older ages. [113]

The exact peak age of fluid intelligence or crystallized intelligence remains elusive. Cross-sectional studies usually show that especially fluid intelligence peaks at a relatively young age (often in the early adulthood) while longitudinal data mostly show that intelligence is stable until mid-adulthood or later. Subsequently, intelligence seems to decline slowly. [114]

Environmental and genetic factors play a role in determining IQ. Their relative importance has been the subject of much research and debate. [115]

Heritability Edit

The general figure for the heritability of IQ, according to an authoritative American Psychological Association report, is 0.45 for children, and rises to around 0.75 for late adolescents and adults. [116] [14] Heritability measures in infancy are as low as 0.2, around 0.4 in middle childhood, and as high as 0.9 in adulthood. [117] [118] One proposed explanation is that people with different genes tend to reinforce the effects of those genes, for example by seeking out different environments. [14] [119]

Shared family environment Edit

Family members have aspects of environments in common (for example, characteristics of the home). This shared family environment accounts for 0.25–0.35 of the variation in IQ in childhood. By late adolescence, it is quite low (zero in some studies). The effect for several other psychological traits is similar. These studies have not looked at the effects of extreme environments, such as in abusive families. [14] [120] [121] [122]

Non-shared family environment and environment outside the family Edit

Although parents treat their children differently, such differential treatment explains only a small amount of nonshared environmental influence. One suggestion is that children react differently to the same environment because of different genes. More likely influences may be the impact of peers and other experiences outside the family. [14] [121]

Individual genes Edit

A very large proportion of the over 17,000 human genes are thought to have an effect on the development and functionality of the brain. [123] While a number of individual genes have been reported to be associated with IQ, none have a strong effect. Deary and colleagues (2009) reported that no finding of a strong single gene effect on IQ has been replicated. [124] Recent findings of gene associations with normally varying intellectual differences in adults and children continue to show weak effects for any one gene. [125] [126]

Gene-environment interaction Edit

David Rowe reported an interaction of genetic effects with socioeconomic status, such that the heritability was high in high-SES families, but much lower in low-SES families. [127] In the US, this has been replicated in infants, [128] children, [129] adolescents, [130] and adults. [131] Outside the US, studies show no link between heritability and SES. [132] Some effects may even reverse sign outside the US. [132] [133]

Dickens and Flynn (2001) have argued that genes for high IQ initiate an environment-shaping feedback cycle, with genetic effects causing bright children to seek out more stimulating environments that then further increase their IQ. In Dickens' model, environment effects are modeled as decaying over time. In this model, the Flynn effect can be explained by an increase in environmental stimulation independent of it being sought out by individuals. The authors suggest that programs aiming to increase IQ would be most likely to produce long-term IQ gains if they enduringly raised children's drive to seek out cognitively demanding experiences. [134] [135]

In general, educational interventions, as those described below, have shown short-term effects on IQ, but long-term follow-up is often missing. For example, in the US, very large intervention programs such as the Head Start Program have not produced lasting gains in IQ scores. Even when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention and speed. [136] More intensive, but much smaller projects, such as the Abecedarian Project, have reported lasting effects, often on socioeconomic status variables, rather than IQ. [14]

Recent studies have shown that training in using one's working memory may increase IQ. A study on young adults published in April 2008 by a team from the Universities of Michigan and Bern supports the possibility of the transfer of fluid intelligence from specifically designed working memory training. [137] Further research will be needed to determine nature, extent and duration of the proposed transfer. Among other questions, it remains to be seen whether the results extend to other kinds of fluid intelligence tests than the matrix test used in the study, and if so, whether, after training, fluid intelligence measures retain their correlation with educational and occupational achievement or if the value of fluid intelligence for predicting performance on other tasks changes. It is also unclear whether the training is durable for extended periods of time. [138]

Musical training in childhood correlates with higher than average IQ. [139] [140] However, a study of 10,500 twins found no effects on IQ, suggesting that the correlation was caused by genetic confounders. [141] A meta-analysis concluded that "Music training does not reliably enhance children and young adolescents' cognitive or academic skills, and that previous positive findings were probably due to confounding variables." [142]

It is popularly thought that listening to classical music raises IQ. However, multiple attempted replications (e.g. [143] ) have shown that this is at best a short-term effect (lasting no longer than 10 to 15 minutes), and is not related to IQ-increase. [144]

Several neurophysiological factors have been correlated with intelligence in humans, including the ratio of brain weight to body weight and the size, shape, and activity level of different parts of the brain. Specific features that may affect IQ include the size and shape of the frontal lobes, the amount of blood and chemical activity in the frontal lobes, the total amount of gray matter in the brain, the overall thickness of the cortex, and the glucose metabolic rate. [145]

Health is important in understanding differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood–brain barrier is less effective. Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, or sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth. [ citation needed ]

Since about 2010, researchers such as Eppig, Hassel, and MacKenzie have found a very close and consistent link between IQ scores and infectious diseases, especially in the infant and preschool populations and the mothers of these children. [146] They have postulated that fighting infectious diseases strains the child's metabolism and prevents full brain development. Hassel postulated that it is by far the most important factor in determining population IQ. However, they also found that subsequent factors such as good nutrition and regular quality schooling can offset early negative effects to some extent.

Developed nations have implemented several health policies regarding nutrients and toxins known to influence cognitive function. These include laws requiring fortification of certain food products and laws establishing safe levels of pollutants (e.g. lead, mercury, and organochlorides). Improvements in nutrition, and in public policy in general, have been implicated in worldwide IQ increases. [147]

Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores and health. Researchers in the field argue that intelligence measured at an early age is an important predictor of later health and mortality differences.

School performance Edit

The American Psychological Association's report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns states that wherever it has been studied, children with high scores on tests of intelligence tend to learn more of what is taught in school than their lower-scoring peers. The correlation between IQ scores and grades is about .50. This means that the explained variance is 25%. Achieving good grades depends on many factors other than IQ, such as "persistence, interest in school, and willingness to study" (p. 81). [14]

It has been found that the correlation of IQ scores with school performance depends on the IQ measurement used. For undergraduate students, the Verbal IQ as measured by WAIS-R has been found to correlate significantly (0.53) with the grade point average (GPA) of the last 60 hours (credits). In contrast, Performance IQ correlation with the same GPA was only 0.22 in the same study. [148]

Some measures of educational aptitude correlate highly with IQ tests – for instance, Frey & Detterman (2004) reported a correlation of 0.82 between g (general intelligence factor) and SAT scores [149] another research found a correlation of 0.81 between g and GCSE scores, with the explained variance ranging "from 58.6% in Mathematics and 48% in English to 18.1% in Art and Design". [150]

Job performance Edit

According to Schmidt and Hunter, "for hiring employees without previous experience in the job the most valid predictor of future performance is general mental ability." [19] The validity of IQ as a predictor of job performance is above zero for all work studied to date, but varies with the type of job and across different studies, ranging from 0.2 to 0.6. [151] The correlations were higher when the unreliability of measurement methods was controlled for. [14] While IQ is more strongly correlated with reasoning and less so with motor function, [152] IQ-test scores predict performance ratings in all occupations. [19] That said, for highly qualified activities (research, management) low IQ scores are more likely to be a barrier to adequate performance, whereas for minimally-skilled activities, athletic strength (manual strength, speed, stamina, and coordination) is more likely to influence performance. [19] The prevailing view among academics is that it is largely through the quicker acquisition of job-relevant knowledge that higher IQ mediates job performance. This view has been challenged by Byington & Felps (2010), who argued that "the current applications of IQ-reflective tests allow individuals with high IQ scores to receive greater access to developmental resources, enabling them to acquire additional capabilities over time, and ultimately perform their jobs better." [153]

In establishing a causal direction to the link between IQ and work performance, longitudinal studies by Watkins and others suggest that IQ exerts a causal influence on future academic achievement, whereas academic achievement does not substantially influence future IQ scores. [154] Treena Eileen Rohde and Lee Anne Thompson write that general cognitive ability, but not specific ability scores, predict academic achievement, with the exception that processing speed and spatial ability predict performance on the SAT math beyond the effect of general cognitive ability. [155]

The US military has minimum enlistment standards at about the IQ 85 level. There have been two experiments with lowering this to 80 but in both cases these men could not master soldiering well enough to justify their costs. [156]

Income Edit

It has been suggested that "in economic terms it appears that the IQ score measures something with decreasing marginal value" and it "is important to have enough of it, but having lots and lots does not buy you that much". [157] [158] However, large-scale longitudinal studies indicate an increase in IQ translates into an increase in performance at all levels of IQ: i.e. ability and job performance are monotonically linked at all IQ levels. [159] [160]

The link from IQ to wealth is much less strong than that from IQ to job performance. Some studies indicate that IQ is unrelated to net worth. [161] [162] The American Psychological Association's 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that IQ scores accounted for about a quarter of the social status variance and one-sixth of the income variance. Statistical controls for parental SES eliminate about a quarter of this predictive power. Psychometric intelligence appears as only one of a great many factors that influence social outcomes. [14] Charles Murray (1998) showed a more substantial effect of IQ on income independent of family background. [163] In a meta-analysis, Strenze (2006) reviewed much of the literature and estimated the correlation between IQ and income to be about 0.23. [20]

Some studies assert that IQ only accounts for (explains) a sixth of the variation in income because many studies are based on young adults, many of whom have not yet reached their peak earning capacity, or even their education. On pg 568 of The g Factor, Arthur Jensen says that although the correlation between IQ and income averages a moderate 0.4 (one-sixth or 16% of the variance), the relationship increases with age, and peaks at middle age when people have reached their maximum career potential. In the book, A Question of Intelligence, Daniel Seligman cites an IQ income correlation of 0.5 (25% of the variance).

A 2002 study [164] further examined the impact of non-IQ factors on income and concluded that an individual's location, inherited wealth, race, and schooling are more important as factors in determining income than IQ.

Crime Edit

The American Psychological Association's 1996 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the correlation between IQ and crime was −0.2. This association is generally regarded as small and prone to disappear or be substantially reduced after controlling for the proper covariates, being much smaller than typical sociological correlates. [165] It was −0.19 between IQ scores and number of juvenile offenses in a large Danish sample with social class controlled, the correlation dropped to −0.17. A correlation of 0.20 means that the explained variance is 4%. The causal links between psychometric ability and social outcomes may be indirect. Children with poor scholastic performance may feel alienated. Consequently, they may be more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, compared to other children who do well. [14]

In his book The g Factor (1998), Arthur Jensen cited data which showed that, regardless of race, people with IQs between 70 and 90 have higher crime rates than people with IQs below or above this range, with the peak range being between 80 and 90.

The 2009 Handbook of Crime Correlates stated that reviews have found that around eight IQ points, or 0.5 SD, separate criminals from the general population, especially for persistent serious offenders. It has been suggested that this simply reflects that "only dumb ones get caught" but there is similarly a negative relation between IQ and self-reported offending. That children with conduct disorder have lower IQ than their peers "strongly argues" for the theory. [166]

A study of the relationship between US county-level IQ and US county-level crime rates found that higher average IQs were very weakly associated with lower levels of property crime, burglary, larceny rate, motor vehicle theft, violent crime, robbery, and aggravated assault. These results were "not confounded by a measure of concentrated disadvantage that captures the effects of race, poverty, and other social disadvantages of the county." [167] However, this study is limited in that it extrapolated Add Health estimates to the respondent's counties, and as the dataset was not designed to be representative on the state or county level, it may not be generalizable. [168]

It has also been shown that the effect of IQ is heavily dependent on socioeconomic status and that it cannot be easily controlled away, with many methodological considerations being at play. [169] Indeed, there is evidence that the small relationship is mediated by well-being, substance abuse, and other confounding factors that prohibit simple causal interpretation. [170] A recent meta-analysis has shown that the relationship is only observed in higher risk populations such as those in poverty without direct effect, but without any causal interpretation. [171] A nationally representative longitudinal study has shown that this relationship is entirely mediated by school performance. [172]

Health and mortality Edit

Multiple studies conducted in Scotland have found that higher IQs in early life are associated with lower mortality and morbidity rates later in life. [173] [174]

Other accomplishments Edit

Average adult combined IQs associated with real-life accomplishments by various tests [175] [176]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
MDs, JDs, and PhDs 125 WAIS-R 1987
College graduates 112 KAIT 2000
K-BIT 1992
115 WAIS-R
1–3 years of college 104 KAIT
105–110 WAIS-R
Clerical and sales workers 100–105
High school graduates, skilled workers (e.g., electricians, cabinetmakers) 100 KAIT
97 K-BIT
1–3 years of high school (completed 9–11 years of school) 94 KAIT
90 K-BIT
Semi-skilled workers (e.g. truck drivers, factory workers) 90–95
Elementary school graduates (completed eighth grade) 90
Have 50/50 chance of reaching high school 75
Average IQ of various occupational groups: [177]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
Professional and technical 112
Managers and administrators 104
Clerical workers, sales workers, skilled workers, craftsmen, and foremen 101
Semi-skilled workers (operatives, service workers, including private household) 92
Unskilled workers 87
Type of work that can be accomplished: [175]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
Adults can harvest vegetables, repair furniture 60
Adults can do domestic work 50

There is considerable variation within and overlap among these categories. People with high IQs are found at all levels of education and occupational categories. The biggest difference occurs for low IQs with only an occasional college graduate or professional scoring below 90. [29]

Among the most controversial issues related to the study of intelligence is the observation that intelligence measures such as IQ scores vary between ethnic and racial groups. While there is little scholarly debate about the existence of some of these differences, current scientific consensus tells us that there is no evidence for a genetic component behind them. [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] The existence of differences in IQ between the sexes remains controversial, and largely depends on which tests are performed. [183] [184]

Sex Edit

With the advent of the concept of g or general intelligence, many researchers have argued that there are no significant sex differences in general intelligence, [184] [185] [186] though ability in particular types of intelligence does appear to vary. [183] [186] Thus, while some test batteries show slightly greater intelligence in males, others show greater intelligence in females. [183] [186] In particular, studies have shown female subjects performing better on tasks related to verbal ability, [184] and males performing better on tasks related to rotation of objects in space, often categorized as spatial ability. [187] These differences obtain, as Hunt (2011) observes, "even though men and women are essentially equal in general intelligence".

Some research indicates that male advantages on some cognitive tests are minimized when controlling for socioeconomic factors. [183] [185] Other research has concluded that there is slightly larger variability in male scores in certain areas compared to female scores, which results in slightly more males than females in the top and bottom of the IQ distribution. [188]

The existence of differences between male and female performance on math-related tests is contested, [189] and a meta-analysis focusing on gender differences in math performance found nearly identical performance for boys and girls. [190] Currently, most IQ tests, including popular batteries such as the WAIS and the WISC-R, are constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males. [14] [191] [192]

Race Edit

While the concept of "race" is a social construct, [193] discussions of a purported relationship between race and intelligence, as well as claims of genetic differences in intelligence along racial lines, have appeared in both popular science and academic research since the modern concept of race was first introduced. Despite the tremendous amount of research done on the topic, no scientific evidence has emerged that the average IQ scores of different population groups can be attributed to genetic differences between those groups. [179] Growing evidence indicates that environmental factors, not genetic ones, explain the racial IQ gap. [182] [194] [195]

A 1996 task force investigation on intelligence sponsored by the American Psychological Association concluded that there were significant variations in IQ across races. [14] However, a systematic analysis by William Dickens and James Flynn (2006) showed the gap between black and white Americans to have closed dramatically during the period between 1972 and 2002, suggesting that, in their words, the "constancy of the Black-White IQ gap is a myth." [196]

The problem of determining the causes underlying racial variation has been discussed at length as a classic question of "nature versus nurture", for instance by Alan S. Kaufman [197] and Nathan Brody. [198] Researchers such as statistician Bernie Devlin have argued that there are insufficient data to conclude that the black-white gap is due to genetic influences. [199] Dickens and Flynn argued more positively that their results refute the possibility of a genetic origin, concluding that "the environment has been responsible" for observed differences. [196] A review article published in 2012 by leading scholars on human intelligence reached a similar conclusion, after reviewing the prior research literature, that group differences in IQ are best understood as environmental in origin. [200] More recently, geneticist and neuroscientist Kevin Mitchell has argued, on the basis of basic principles of population genetics, that "systematic genetic differences in intelligence between large, ancient populations" are "inherently and deeply implausible". [201]

The effects of stereotype threat have been proposed as an explanation for differences in IQ test performance between racial groups, [202] [203] as have issues related to cultural difference and access to education. [204] [205]

In the United States, certain public policies and laws regarding military service, [206] [207] education, public benefits, [208] capital punishment, [104] and employment incorporate an individual's IQ into their decisions. However, in the case of Griggs v. Duke Power Co. in 1971, for the purpose of minimizing employment practices that disparately impacted racial minorities, the U.S. Supreme Court banned the use of IQ tests in employment, except when linked to job performance via a job analysis. Internationally, certain public policies, such as improving nutrition and prohibiting neurotoxins, have as one of their goals raising, or preventing a decline in, intelligence.

A diagnosis of intellectual disability is in part based on the results of IQ testing. Borderline intellectual functioning is a categorization where a person has below-average cognitive ability (an IQ of 71–85), but the deficit is not as severe as intellectual disability (70 or below).

In the United Kingdom, the eleven plus exam which incorporated an intelligence test has been used from 1945 to decide, at eleven years of age, which type of school a child should go to. They have been much less used since the widespread introduction of comprehensive schools.

IQ classification is the practice used by IQ test publishers for designating IQ score ranges into various categories with labels such as "superior" or "average." [176] IQ classification was preceded historically by attempts to classify human beings by general ability based on other forms of behavioral observation. Those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ tests.

There are social organizations, some international, which limit membership to people who have scores as high as or higher than the 98th percentile (2 standard deviations above the mean) on some IQ test or equivalent. Mensa International is perhaps the best known of these. The largest 99.9th percentile (3 standard deviations above the mean) society is the Triple Nine Society.

List for All Special Light Sport Aircraft

Special Light-Sport Aircraft, or SLSA, are 100% factory built light aircraft that may be used commercially for instruction and rental. These aircraft are accepted by FAA after the manufacturer demonstrates compliance with industry consensus standards and proves they have proper manufacturing controls.

Since the first SLSA approvals in April 2005, the LSA industry has gained FAA approval for more than 150 aircraft models. is pleased to list all of these models in the order in which they were approved for a LSA airworthiness certificate.

How the SLSA List works … and how you can help

If you know of an approved aircraft not on this list, send us an email and tell us about it.

Keep up with all these new approvals returning to this page frequently. The newest FAA-accepted SLSA appear at the top (default view). Click the No. header to see which aircraft received certification first.

Sort the list to find what you want. Reorder the list by clicking on the up and down arrows next to each column header for Certification Order number (No.), Airplane Model, Manufacturer, or Importer.

The “Type” column uses these abbreviations: FW = Fixed Wing • FA = Fixed Wing Amphibian • WS = Weight Shift • PP = Powered Parachute • GL = Glider / Motorglider

Diplomatic Relations [ edit | edit source ]

Overall, the Systems Alliance enjoys good relations with the Asari Republics and the Salarian Union, and it maintains a cold, yet relatively friendly, relationship with the Turian Hierarchy, though animosity over the First Contact War and the occupation of Shanxi remains. The fractured krogan rarely associate with the Alliance, and there is little, if any, dialogue with the quarians and their Flotilla, though they are not on bad terms. Because of Earth's colonization of the Traverse and the Skyllian Verge, humans remain the natural rivals of the batarians. Practically, the Alliance has no other allies.

In 2165 the Alliance was granted an embassy on the Citadel, electing Anita Goyle as the first human ambassador. The Alliance desires a bigger role in galactic politics, preferably even a Council seat. If they get a seat, they can use the Council's resources and political pull to protect their colonies and interests, as well as being acknowledged as one of the senior races in Citadel space. The galaxy knows it is only a matter of time before the Alliance gets a say but the ambassadors believe it should happen sooner rather than later. In 2183, the Alliance got its first human Spectre, Commander Shepard, bringing the Alliance one step closer to the Council.

Despite Earth's relatively unblemished diplomatic record, however, the Alliance is still feared by many aliens because they hold the opinion that the Alliance is expanding too fast. The Alliance draws some distrust from humans as well. It was not taken seriously until the First Contact War proved how much humanity needed the Alliance as Doctor Chakwas points out, the Alliance is now essential to human colonization and expansion in the Attican Traverse.

Currently, the Alliance's most notable human dissenters are supporters of Terra Firma, a political party who opposes humanity's growing integration into the galactic community. Terra Firma believes humanity needs to stand alone if they are to remain strong. The party has been getting much negative attention from both humans and aliens. The Illusive Man, on the other hand, believes that humanity should be ascendant over all other races. He sees the Alliance as nothing more than weak conformists who kneel before the Council. The Alliance is also sometimes criticized by colonists for its defensive tactics (see above). The fact colonial garrisons are meant for scouting rather than defense means that, in the event of trouble, the cavalry often only arrive once the damage has been done.

The Alliance is open to helping biotics integrate into normal human society, particularly welcoming their enlistment in the military. They now provide funding to the Ascension Project, a second-generation biotics training program, to allay any fears from the public that they are creating supersoldiers. However, some biotics, particularly L2s with severe health problems, oppose the Alliance, believing it is responsible for their suffering because of the failures in initial Alliance-sponsored biotic research. The issue of L2 reparations has created further anger and distrust.

Powers and Abilities


  • Kryptonian Physiology: Kryptonian cellular structure is much more dense, resilient, and biologically more effective than human tissue. They do not possess superhuman strength levels despite their enhanced cellular ability without their cellular structure charged with yellow solar energy. Without such charging, their physical capabilities are identical to a human of their height and weight who engages in regular physical activity. As aliens, they possesses several organs whose functions are not yet disclosed or understood, but are believed to be part of or the source of their bio-matrix force field and reclamation aura. Kryptonians' bodies also store energy actively within their bio-cellular matrix as an energy pattern which is linked to their body's electromagnetic field. This energy powers most of their electromagnetic capabilities such as flight, heat vision and other "sight"-based abilities while supplementing their physical abilities to superhuman levels.
    • Solar Radiation Absorption: As Kryptonians, their cells function like a super battery, hyper metabolizing specific wavelengths of radiation as fuel to enable living functions and/or superhuman abilities. Different wavelengths of radiation have different effects on Kryptonian physiology and well being, but their cells cannot absorb or utilize all types of radiation. The wavelength of their home solar system's red sun enables their body to function on an identical level of a healthy human while the Earth's solar radiation in both its raw and filtered state through the Earth's atmosphere acts as fuel to enable all of their powers. Every time Kryptonians use any of their superhuman abilities, their bodies expend absorbed sunlight and they are capable of utilizing any of them to various degrees through controlled circumstances. The solar-based radiation of a foreign blue star proved to increase their known abilities under a yellow sun to a higher degree and enabled additional powers. The existence and constant exposure to proven "healthy" radiation sources are not required for them to live and utilize their powers, but prolonged periods without exposure to them and/or utilizing their powers will require them to recharge in order to live and continue using their powers.
      • Superhuman Strength: The exact limits of Kryptonians strength are unknown, but they are capable lifting far in excess of 100,000 tons. Different periods and intensities of exposure to Earth's solar radiation can cause their strength to fluctuate over time. Kryptonians' known feats include lifting an enormous pyramid and flying it to Mars without any strain and having the strength necessary to shatter small planets. Unhealthy levels of high exposure to specific radiation can exceed Kryptonians' "normal" strength level.
      • Invulnerability: Their bodies are nigh-invulnerable due to their superhumanly dense cellular and anatomical structure as well as their radiating bio-electrical aura. Kryptonians are under some circumstances resistant or immune to different forms and levels of lacerations, blunt force trauma, energy-based assaults, falls from great heights, explosions, the cold void of space, toxins and all known diseases on Earth. Their supercharged bio-electric "aura" acts as an invisible "force field" radiating within a few millimeters from their skin. They can willfully utilize their aura strengthening it's power to a greater degree to provide an additional defense against certain levels of physical and energy attacks for a considerably short period of time, but doing so can endanger them should the attempted feat prove inefficient for any reason. Kryptonians utilize their aura by expanding it around a person(s) or object(s) to enable their structural stability when lifting or traveling with them. Kryptonians' invulnerability has been in constant fluctuation over the years. They have been shown surviving the blast of nuclear warheads, entering the Earth's sun and emerging unharmed and surviving the impact of an exploding sun.
      • Longevity/Immortality: Kryptonians can live almost indefinitely if they reside under continuous exposure of Earth's sunlight.
      • Superhuman Stamina: They have the ability to maintain continuous physical actions for an undefined period. Kryptonians are shown to have unlimited stamina if they are consistently exposed to Earth sunlight.
      • Flight: Kryptonians are capable of flying at supersonic speeds (over two thousand miles per second) in a planetary atmosphere and at faster-than-light speeds while in space. It's theorized they do so by not propelling themselves by force of will, but instead move about reality by shifting space-time around in order to simulate flying. Η]
      • Superhuman Speed: They are capable of moving, reacting, running and flying at superhuman speeds. While not as fast as the Flash on planet Earth, Kryptonians can fly at speeds faster than light and are considered one of the fastest beings in the universe. They can use this power to disarm opponents, catch bullets or shrapnel and cross vast distances in seconds.
        • Molecular Oscillation: Similarly to speedsters, Kryptonians can learn to control their own molecular motion in order to move fast enough that their molecules pass between the spaces of atoms.
        • Electro-Magnetic Spectrum Vision: They can see into all of the EM Spectrum. Kryptonians can see and identify radio/television and any and all broadcast/transmitted frequencies, allowing them to avoid detection through radar or satellite monitoring methods.
        • Telescopic Vision: The ability to focus their vision to see something at a great distance, without violating the laws of physics.
        • Microscopic Vision: The ability to see extremely small objects and images down to the sub atomic level.
        • X-Ray Vision: The ability to see through anything except lead. Since it is passive, this ability would not generate harmful radiation in the same manner as a focused projection of hard X-rays.
        • 4-D Vision: The underlying capacity to peer beyond the veil of realities in order to see and interact with things that are incomprehensible to 3-Dimensional beings like himself. ⎖]

        In some cases a rare mutation can cause a Kryptonians energy matrix to change their powers and physiology radically. Either transduction of their internal conversion anatomy or reprocessing of how they store and metabolize irradiated energy can lead to any number of unpredictable physical effects. ⎟]

        • Energy Matrix: Kryptonians can be turned into pure energy based lifeforms that don't naturally exist wholly within any plane of reality. ⎠]
          • Energy Form: Kryptonian's or those powered by Kryptonian energies lack the traditional powers that come with their solar enhanced physiologies. ⎡] Transforming them into beings of raw fundamental force energy, for an individual whose undergone such a change to maintain physical cohesion in this form, normally he or she needs to wear a containment suit. ⎢]
            • Electromagnetic Spectrum Manipulation: As an EM creature this would allow converted kryptonians the ability to influence all forms of electromagnetic energy. Granting abilities ranging to magnetism, gravitational forces, radiation and electricity.
              • Lightning Bolt Travel: ability to travel as a bolt of lightning landing with a jolt when ever he landed.
              • Technopathy: ability to link with electronic systems such as computers
              • Electronic Teleportation: travel through systems much like electric current.
              • Density Shifting: In this form, Kryptonians can lower their tangibility to become immaterial making him or her phase through solid objects or ramp it up to the point where they become as physically permissible as a normal human.
                • Flight
                • Size Alteration: By absorbing enough energy into oneself they can increase their size and mass to near incalculable measures. ⎣]
                • Electro Vision: Lacking the ability to store and discharge focused heat from their eyes, energized Kryptonians can launch a flurry of electrostaic energy beams which simulate heating a smelting via infrared radiation. ⎤]
                • Solid Field: Energized Kryptonians can produce solid energy field's which enable the physical interaction with the material world, they can also learn o control the shape and size of said field to make it more applicable in combat.
                • Metamorphosis: Controlling their own electrons allows for the individual to alternate their shape and form into whatever semblance they wish. ⎦]
                • Black Light Energy: A unique skill of the kryptonian enforcer Preus. ⎧] Unlike typical supermen from krypton he possessed the unique ability to generate and emit jet black energy from both his hands and eyes which seemed to function on multiple wavelengths. ⎨]
                  • Black Heat Vision: Preus can emit heat based optic blasts which are both heat and concussive energy at the same time. Moreover, his heat vision can even affect Martian Manhunter even while he's intangible. ⎩]
                  • Energy Punch: Another skill utilized by the xenophobic Kryptonian was his channeling of said black energy through his fists in order to add an explosive charge to ever punch landed. Multiplying their striking power. ⎪]
                  • Altered Physiology: Due to alterations of ones cellular matrix through foreign radiation, Kryptonians who're rendered incapable of properly processing yellow sunlight can gain entirely new abilities due to genetic mutation. ⎫] Being able to use Kryptonite as a viable power source to accentuate their biophysical essence and simulate kryptonian level power sets. ⎬]
                    • K-radiation Absorption: Kryptonite charged cells can simulate their original abilities under a yellow sun. This comes with the lethal inclination of killing off healthy genes as well as the deviant genes with prolonged exposure however. ⎭]
                      • Flight
                      • Invulnerability
                      • Kryptonite Vision
                      • Modulation Wave Sight: He/She can see the multitudinous transmission frequencies of EM Field like with their superhuman vision.
                      • Kinetic Field: Every blow dealt by their fisticuffs carried an explosive kinetic blast, causing objects to dent, warp or splinter into pieces on impact.
                      • Superhuman Strength
                      • Superhuman Speed: Mutate Kryptonians can simulate a facmile of super speed through their krypto irradiated physiology.



                      • Vulnerability to Magic: Kryptonians' biomatrix is their most powerful asset, but the strength of this field is also its greatest weakness. Its permeability to certain wavelengths makes them vulnerable to certain radiations, particularly magical energies whose chaotic electromagnetic or extra dimensional signatures disrupt this force field. Kryptonians' vulnerability to magic varies depending upon the special effects of the magic. No magic seems to be able to directly destroy them unless it comes from a semi-divine or divine source. They can be injured and worn down by magical entities. Magic can have powerful and unpredictable effects on Kryptonian and their magical enemies have often proven to be the most dangerous.
                      • Vulnerability to Chi: Lex Luthor and Question argued that, because of Kryptonians' solar based powers, planetary based esoteric and vital forces could have an opposite effect on them. Luthor posited that concentrated doses of such energies could severely cripple a Kryptonian and become fatal, and he attempted to exploit this weakness with the Science Spire, which tapped into the energies.
                      • Vulnerability to Kryptonite: Since the destruction of Krypton, its remains (rendered radioactive by the explosion) have been spreading throughout the universe as Kryptonite, a crystalline substance whose specific radioactive wavelength is lethal to Kryptonians native to this reality. The most common form of Kryptonite is Green Kryptonite, and its effect is directly poisonous to them. Kryptonite from other realities does not necessarily have the same effects on all Kryptonians.
                      • Vulnerability to Variable Irradiation: Certain radiological frequencies could hamper a Kryptonian's physical ability to harness and circulate solar radiation. As was the case when surviving a nuclear blast left Kal-El physically emaciated and trying to heal via solar energy caused him agony. Or when Vandal Savage implemented similar tactics to weaken both him and his cousin Kara by bathing their cells in a specialized radioactive isotope that impeded their cellular matrix's capacity to absorb and repurpose yellow sunlight.
                      • Lead: Kryptonians cannot see through lead with their vision powers.
                      • Solar Energy Dependancy: Their abilities will eventually weaken without replenishing their energy reserves with normal (yellow) sun radiation. When exposed to the same red solar radiation as Krypton's red sun Rao, it causes Kryptonians to lose their powers and stamina within a large amount of exposure until exposure to yellow sunlight reverses this effect. Against potent enough energy absorbents this dependency can also become a weakness if the yellow solar energies powering them are leeched from their bodies.
                      • Psionics Most Kryptonians no matter how powerful they may be, are highly vulnerable to psychic effects. Such as Telepathy, Telekinesis, Illusion Projection and the like. Max Lord was able to trick Superman into believing that Batman and Wonder Woman were both Doomsday with Mind Control, while the Kryptonian clone H'el managed to fray Superboy's genetic structure by pulling it apart with advanced Telekinesis.
                      • Invulnerability: The same ability to be nearly impossible to harm when exposed to Earth's sunlight means that when they are harmed, human medical equipment is rendered useless, as proven when it once took Kilowog (New Earth)'s inventiveness and Superman's heat vision to perform surgery on Powergirl.

                      No death and an enhanced life: Is the future transhuman?

                      T he aims of the transhumanist movement are summed up by Mark O’Connell in his book To Be a Machine, which last week won the Wellcome Book prize. “It is their belief that we can and should eradicate ageing as a cause of death that we can and should use technology to augment our bodies and our minds that we can and should merge with machines, remaking ourselves, finally, in the image of our own higher ideals.”

                      The idea of technologically enhancing our bodies is not new. But the extent to which transhumanists take the concept is. In the past, we made devices such as wooden legs, hearing aids, spectacles and false teeth. In future, we might use implants to augment our senses so we can detect infrared or ultraviolet radiation directly or boost our cognitive processes by connecting ourselves to memory chips. Ultimately, by merging man and machine, science will produce humans who have vastly increased intelligence, strength, and lifespans a near embodiment of gods.

                      Is that a desirable goal? Advocates of transhumanism believe there are spectacular rewards to be reaped from going beyond the natural barriers and limitations that constitute an ordinary human being. But to do so would raise a host of ethical problems and dilemmas. As O’Connell’s book indicates, the ambitions of transhumanism are now rising up our intellectual agenda. But this is a debate that is only just beginning.

                      There is no doubt that human enhancement is becoming more and more sophisticated – as will be demonstrated at the exhibition The Future Starts Here which opens at the V&A museum in London this week. Items on display will include “powered clothing” made by the US company Seismic. Worn under regular clothes, these suits mimic the biomechanics of the human body and give users – typically older people – discrete strength when getting out of a chair or climbing stairs, or standing for long periods.

                      In many cases these technological or medical advances are made to help the injured, sick or elderly but are then adopted by the healthy or young to boost their lifestyle or performance. The drug erythropoietin (EPO) increases red blood cell production in patients with severe anaemia but has also been taken up as an illicit performance booster by some athletes to improve their bloodstream’s ability to carry oxygen to their muscles.

                      And that is just the start, say experts. “We are now approaching the time when, for some kinds of track sports such as the 100-metre sprint, athletes who run on carbon-fibre blades will be able outperform those who run on natural legs,” says Blay Whitby, an artificial intelligence expert at Sussex University.

                      The question is: when the technology reaches this level, will it be ethical to allow surgeons to replace someone’s limbs with carbon-fibre blades just so they can win gold medals? Whitby is sure many athletes will seek such surgery. “However, if such an operation came before any ethics committee that I was involved with, I would have none of it. It is a repulsive idea – to remove a healthy limb for transient gain.”

                      Scientists think there will come a point when athletes with carbon blades will be able to out-run able-bodied rivals. Photograph: Alexandre Loureiro/Getty Images

                      Not everyone in the field agrees with this view, however. Cybernetics expert Kevin Warwick, of Coventry University, sees no problem in approving the removal of natural limbs and their replacement with artificial blades. “What is wrong with replacing imperfect bits of your body with artificial parts that will allow you to perform better – or which might allow you to live longer?” he says.

                      Warwick is a cybernetics enthusiast who, over the years, has had several different electronic devices implanted into his body. “One allowed me to experience ultrasonic inputs. It gave me a bat sense, as it were. I also interfaced my nervous system with my computer so that I could control a robot hand and experience what it was touching. I did that when I was in New York, but the hand was in a lab in England.”

                      Such interventions enhance the human condition, Warwick insists, and indicate the kind of future humans might have when technology augments performance and the senses. Some might consider this unethical. But even doubters such as Whitby acknowledge the issues are complex. “Is it ethical to take two girls under the age of five and train them to play tennis every day of their lives until they have the musculature and skeletons of world champions?” he asks. From this perspective the use of implants or drugs to achieve the same goal does not look so deplorable.

                      This last point is a particular issue for those concerned with the transhumanist movement. They believe that modern technology ultimately offers humans the chance to live for aeons, unshackled – as they would be – from the frailties of the human body. Failing organs would be replaced by longer-lasting high-tech versions just as carbon-fibre blades could replace the flesh, blood and bone of natural limbs. Thus we would end humanity’s reliance on “our frail version 1.0 human bodies into a far more durable and capable 2.0 counterpart,” as one group has put it.

                      However, the technology needed to achieve these goals relies on as yet unrealised developments in genetic engineering, nanotechnology and many other sciences and may take many decades to reach fruition. As a result, many advocates – such as the US inventor and entrepreneur Ray Kurzweil, nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler and PayPal founder and venture capitalist Peter Thiel have backed the idea of having their bodies stored in liquid nitrogen and cryogenically preserved until medical science has reached the stage when they can be revived and their resurrected bodies augmented and enhanced.

                      Four such cryogenic facilities have now been constructed: three in the US and one in Russia. The largest is the Alcor Life Extension Foundation in Arizona whose refrigerators store more than 100 bodies (nevertheless referred to as “patients” by staff) in the hope of their subsequent thawing and physiological resurrection. It is “a place built to house the corpses of optimists”, as O’Connell says in To Be a Machine.

                      The Alcor Life Extension Foundation where ‘patients’ are cryogenically stored in the hope of future revival. Photograph: Alamy

                      Not everyone is convinced about the feasibility of such technology or about its desirability. “I was once interviewed by a group of cryonic enthusiasts – based in California – called the society for the abolition of involuntary death,” recalls the Astronomer Royal Martin Rees. “I told them I’d rather end my days in an English churchyard than a Californian refrigerator. They derided me as a deathist – really old-fashioned.”

                      For his part, Rees believes that those who choose to freeze themselves in the hope of being eventually thawed out would be burdening future generations expected to care for these newly defrosted individuals. “It is not clear how much consideration they would deserve,” Rees adds.

                      Ultimately, adherents of transhumanism envisage a day when humans will free themselves of all corporeal restraints. Kurzweil and his followers believe this turning point will be reached around the year 2030, when biotechnology will enable a union between humans and genuinely intelligent computers and AI systems. The resulting human-machine mind will become free to roam a universe of its own creation, uploading itself at will on to a “suitably powerful computational substrate”. We will become gods, or more likely “star children” similar to the one at the end of 2001: A Space Odyssey.

                      These are remote and, for many people, very fanciful goals. And the fact that much of the impetus for establishing such extreme forms of transhuman technology comes from California and Silicon Valley is not lost on critics. Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk, the entrepreneur who wants to send the human race to Mars, also believes that to avoid becoming redundant in the face of the development of artificial intelligence, humans must merge with machines to enhance our own intellect.

                      This is a part of the world where the culture of youth is followed with fanatical intensity and where ageing is feared more acutely than anywhere else on the planet. Hence the overpowering urge to try to use technology to overcome its effects.

                      It is also one of the world’s richest regions, and many of those who question the values of the transhuman movement warn it risks creating technologies that will only create deeper gulfs in an already divided society where only some people will be able to afford to become enhanced while many other lose out.

                      "Super symmetrical" eyes

                      Brown is the most common eye color by a landslide. According to World Atlas, anywhere from 55 to 79 percent of the world's population is thought to have brown eyes. Brown also happens to be the color of the eyes in the ideal female face composite in Soloman's study. The Natalie Portman-esque face features dark almond-shaped eyes that are each 0.23 wide and a distance of 0.48 apart from the centers of the pupils.

                      According to L'Oréal Paris, there are six general eye shapes a person can have: monolids, round, almond, downturned, upturned, and hooded. Each of the six shapes has its own unique characteristics. Not sure if you have almond eyes? According to the site, your eyes are this shape if "you have a visible crease in your eyelid and, unlike those with round eyes, your iris touches both the top and bottom of your eyelid."

                      The company further revealed that almond eyes are — surprise, surprise — "super symmetrical." When accentuating almond eyes, you don't have to try to add in symmetry with eye makeup and can instead use "makeup to accent your natural eye shape."

                      An RV-3B? Really?

                      I didn’t plan to build an RV-3B. In fact, the RV line wasn’t on my radar at all. I’ve got a very nice, reasonably fast, four-seat airplane and a capacious hangar in which to keep it. If ever I were going to get another airplane, it would be a Kolb Xtra or a Curtiss Junior, for the visibility. And I couldn’t really say that I needed either of those after all, I’d sold a Kolb precisely because I wasn’t flying it.

                      And as for a project, I did, admittedly, enjoy building aluminum airplanes, having had the construction of one as a college job. But then again, I knew well the labor involved.

                      David Paule rivets the left-hand skin of his RV-3B. He finds building to be both fun and challenging, and he haven’t gotten bored yet.

                      What’s more, I’d sold my fast composite trimaran sailboat. Yes, after sailing for a decade, I gave it up the ocean was too far away from the mountains of Colorado. But the sailboat taught me something pertinent: I preferred non-engine activities to engine ones. The best part of any day on the water was when I got to shut the motor off.

                      So a friend built a motorglider and started flying it about 90 minutes per day. He’d climb for about 15 or 20 minutes, shut down that motor, and soar. It was a kit that he built. I could buy one of those and have the fun of shutting down the motor, too. Tempting indeed. But the memory of him building those very long wings still made me think that it wasn’t for me. Wings are good things to have, to be sure, but that plane has an excessive length of them, and they must be built, every foot of them.

                      For that matter, the Curtiss Junior has seemingly long wings, too. This led to wondering if I could homebuild a Junior, keeping the airplane’s grace and, yes, the span, but with slightly better visibility and a more recent engine. No, I decided, I didn’t need a project of that magnitude at all. A simple little airplane kit at my age would do nicely.

                      Around that time I discovered, and Paul Dye and Louise Hose were discussing the construction of their RV-3B, and this got me interested in that airplane. About this time also, I got a demo ride in an RV-12 and was surprised by its superb handling and remarkable visibility. If only it were a taildragger! I have only minimal nosedragger experience and remain somewhat suspicious of them, an unfounded prejudice of mine, perhaps.

                      People say that the RV-3B handles well. I don’t know. I’ve never flown one.

                      People don’t say the visibility is outstanding, and I’m sure it isn’t. But it appeared as if a tall canopy and lots of seat cushions might improve that, anyway.

                      People say that the nice thing about the RV-3B is the quality of the social experience, knowing that it’s a single-seater.

                      People don’t say that the RV-3B is a thinking man’s airplane, which it most certainly is, at least during the construction. People should say that because it’s true. I ought to know because I decided to build one, mostly to have a fulfilling project, and it has been that and more for sure. My kits were delivered in 2012, and I’ve been at it since. And yes, it’ll have a full-time big engine, and it’ll make those loud engine sounds that I no longer enjoy.

                      To me, the difficulties inherent with the RV-3B made it a particularly attractive project. The skins didn’t have prepunched holes, for example, and some of the parts didn’t fit as well as they might have. But apparently the design has decent handling characteristics, and I look forward to that.

                      What’s it like to build? It’s an airplane from the 󈨊s, which means it’s not computer designed. A number of the parts need to be tweaked before they fit, and the plans, while sufficient, are not always well organized, complete, or ample. Some of the details are obscure at best. But two fuel tank arrangements are included and two canopy-opening designs. The airplane has been around long enough that its major design-improvement iterations are complete: the B model with wing tanks and a better spar being the major one. So far, factory builder support and replacement parts availability have been excellent. I’ve got the wings and tail done and am skinning the fuselage now. Building it is both fun and challenging, and I haven’t gotten bored yet.

                      Huan T'ai composite cruiser - History

                      Early Years (1911-1918)Glenn Curtiss was the first to impact North Island during the early years of naval aviation. He originally became interested in San Diego while participating in the 1910 Air Meet in Los Angeles. Curtiss had been conducting his aviation experiments and flight instruction at Hammondsport, New York, but the winters there made it impossible to fly year-round. Word of North Island's ideal climate and isolated location thus attracted Curtiss.

                      Aerial View, 1914

                      This very early aerial view of North Island was taken circa 1914. The Spanish Bight separating the island from Coronado is very evident. In addition to the climate, this sheltered body of water was one of the lures for Curtiss as it provided an ideal location for testing his experimental hydro-planes.In early 1911, Harry Harkness, a wealthy New York businessman, formed the Aero Club of San Diego and sponsored an aviation venture with Curtiss. Together they signed a three-year lease agreement, at no cost, with the Coronado Beach Company for the use of North Island.

                      Harry Harkness Antionettes

                      Harry Harkness purchased three French built Antoinette monoplanes to jump start the new San Diego Aero club. This unique photo was taken by Waldo Waterman just after the arrival of Glenn Curtiss on the island and shows two of Harkness' planes along with several early Curtiss pushers.

                      When the Curtiss Aviation Camp began operations, the only substantial building available for him was an old hay barn which he used as a hangar and workshop. Most of the other "buildings" used by the mechanics and students were "tents". In this photo Glenn Curtiss sits in the pilot's seat of one of his planes in front of that barn.

                      Curtiss, hoping to interest the War Department in the possibilities aviation presented, offered free instruction in his first class for Army and Navy officers. The Army sent three candidates and the Navy sent one. Seen here are from the left, Lt. Theodore Ellyson navy, Capt. Paul Beck, army Glenn Curtiss Lt. G. E. Kelly, army and Lt. John C. Walker, army.

                      1st Naval Aviator, License courtesy of Library of Congress

                      Theodore Gordon Ellyson became Naval Aviator #1. Not only was he the first naval officer to undergo flight training, he was also the first Naval officer to make a night flight. He made the first successful launching of an airplane by catapult, assisted in preparing for the test of the first successful hydroaeroplane flight, tested the Navy's first flying boat -the C-1, and was the first naval officer to be enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame.Eugene Ely

                      Eugene Ely

                      On November 14, 1910 in a Curtiss landplane, Eugene Ely (member of the Curtiss Exhibition Team) was the first to takeoff from a ship. On January 18, 1911 Ely made the world's first landing on a ship, the battleship USS Pennsylvania and on that same day, he made the second takeoff from a ship.

                      First Seaplane Flight

                      On January 26, 1911, Glenn Curtiss made the first seaplane flight at North Island in his "hydroaeroplane." After this historic flight, Curtiss intensified his efforts to convince the Navy to purchase his design.

                      Curtiss was determined to prove that seaplanes could operate effectively with the fleet. On February 17, 1911, Curtiss demonstrated his Model D-III from San Diego Bay and landed alongside the USS Pennsylvania. He was lifted aboard by a standard boat crane and placed on deck. This demonstration, along with Ely's, was instrumental in showing the Navy the feasibility of operating aircraft in the fleet. Soon afterward the Navy announced the first purchase of a Navy aircraft.

                      First Navy Plane

                      On May 8, 1911, the Navy purchased its first aircraft, the Curtiss A-1 Triad.

                      Camp Trouble

                      On January 15, 1912, Ellyson set up the first aviation squadron on the northeast side of North Island consisting of tents for personnel and three aircraft (two Curtiss aircraft and one of the Wright Brothers' design). Within four months, all aircraft had been wrecked, earning the camp the nickname, "Camp Trouble". The squadron operated alongside the Curtiss school until May 2, 1912, when the detachment was transferred to Annapolis, Maryland. The Navy would not return again until 1917. In the meantime the Army stepped in.

                      The Navy Returns

                      When the Navy returned to North Island, a decision was made by the Army and Navy that operations on the island needed to be separated. A compromise was reached that allowed the Navy to take over the northeast corner of the island while the Army relocated to the southeast end. All landplane flying operations took place on the western half of the island. Almost immediately, the Navy began to plan and build permanent buildings, while the Army continued to operate out of temporary wooden structures.

                      Aerial View, 1918

                      This composite aerial photograph of the north end of the island was taken on December 5, 1918. Construction of the new Navy building has begun, with the new lighter-than-air building visible in the center.

                      The earliest navy buildings on the island were of similar construction to the simple wood structures already in use by the army. Made in some cases with wood salvaged from dismantled army buildings, these facilities were intended for use only until permanent buildings were made ready. This June 1918 view shows a new enlisted barracks nearing completion.

                      During the First World War, airships played a vital role as spotters and patrol craft. After the war, the Navy continued to show great interest in lighter-than-air technology and North Island was looked upon as an optional site for dirigible activities. In this February 3, 1919 photograph, the construction of a dirigible hanger over 250 feet long is near completion.

                      Once completed, this hanger could accommodate all but the largest airships then in service and was the largest building on North Island.

                      Curtiss N-9

                      The Curtiss N-9 was one of the Navy's most important early training aircraft. Over 560 Curtiss N-9 trainers were built, mostly under license by the Burgess Company. This World War I type, while very similar to the famous JN Jenny, was designed from the outset as a seaplane trainer for the Navy. Seen floating peacefully on San Diego Bay with a battleship at anchor in the background is Burgess-built N-9 assigned to the base reserve unit. Golden Age (1919-1941)

                      Lieutenant Earl W. Spencer

                      Naval aviation activity in San Diego accelerated rapidly after WWI as squadrons of Battle Fleet aircraft concentrated their training on North Island. On September 25, 1917 Lt. Earl Spencer, U.S. Navy, was ordered to report to San Diego in order to establish a permanent naval air station for training purposes. On November 8, 1917, Lieutenant Spencer became the commanding officer of the naval air station on North Island. Spencer remained in command until December 1919.

                      Building the Navy Base

                      This is an artistic view of the plan for the final configuration of NAS San Diego dating from August 1919. While most of the permanent buildings shown were finished and the configuration would remain unchanged, only one of the three planned lighter-than-air hangars would be built.

                      The Navy's first phase of construction at North Island included the tower of the administration building and two seaplane hangars on the water's edge of Spanish Bight. This photograph shows the newly completed administration building taken c. 1925. Although there is a new control tower today, this distinctive building remains in use.

                      Aerial of North Island

                      Taken c. 1925, this image of North Island has been marked to show the borders between the Army and Navy areas of operation. Over the next five years, the flying fields would be developed further.

                      USS Shenandoah at NI

                      North Island was the scene of many of the Navy's experiments with lighter-than-air. On October 10, 1924, the navy's first rigid airship, the giant USS Shenandoah, paid a visit to San Diego after its transcontinental flight from Lakehurst, New Jersey.

                      USS Langley

                      Advancements in aircraft and tactics highlighted the 1920s and the carrier became an integral part of fleet operations. In 1919, the US Congress appropriated funds to convert the collier, Jupiter to the first US carrier, USS Langley. By the end of the decade, two carriers were added to the fleet, the USS Lexingtonand USS Saratoga (both converted from battle cruiser hulls).The USS Langley, CV-1, was commissioned on March 20, 1922 and became America's first carrier. A new era for naval aviation began with the arrival of the Langley in San Diego on November 29, 1924.

                      The Langley is seen here on Navy Day 1929 at her dock at NAS North Island. Among the planes visible on her deck are a UO-1 and a Martin T4M-1 from the torpedo squadron VT-1B. The latter perhaps visiting from the USS Lexington, as the Langley did not carry a torpedo squadron at the time.

                      First Takeoff from the Langley

                      A Vought VE-7 was the first plane to take off from the USS Langley on October 17, 1921. Seen in this image is a group of proud Navy mechanics smiling for the camera behind a Vought VE-7 in the early 1920s at NAS San Diego.

                      Admiral Joseph Mason Reeves

                      Admiral Joseph Mason Reeves was instrumental in the development of carrier aviation. At the age of 53, Reeves qualified as a naval aviator observer and became the first officer wearing wings to be promoted to flag rank. In October 1925, Reeves assumed command of the Aircraft Squadron, Battle Fleet assigned to Langley. At the time, the carrier was classified as an experimental ship and was the only aircraft carrier in the Navy. Under his command, he introduced concepts of efficiency that transformed carrier tactics and doctrine.

                      The Three Seahawks

                      The Navy's first aerial demonstration team was formed in 1927, the true forefathers of today's famous Blue Angels. Commander D.W. Tomlinson formed the Three Seahawks from North Island with the support of Admiral Reeves. This panorama photograph was taken in Los Angeles in September 1928, just prior to the National Air Races. NAS San Diego was the primary home for the West Coast naval aviation in the interwar years. Under the direction of Admiral Reeves, the base was aggressively involved in every available opportunity to get public attention and advance naval aviation in the public view. The Langley anchored off Manhattan Beach near the race site, and naval officials watched the flying from her deck. Standing in the center of the pilots is Rear Admiral Reeves. Also present is Commander D.W. Tomlinson, whose personal Curtiss Jenny appears on the left.

                      First Rotary-Wing Aircraft

                      Lt. Alfred M. Pride made the Navy's first rotary-wing landings and takeoffs with the XOP-1 while aboard the USS Langley underway in September 1931. After a short testing phase in the 1930s, Pitcairn autogiros were ruled out for Navy service.

                      USS Ranger

                      The USS Ranger and USS Langley, share the pier at NAS San Diego in 1937. The Ranger was the fourth aircraft carrier to see service and the first carrier to be built from the keel up as a carrier. Launched in 1934, she was home ported in San Diego until 1939. The USS Langley, having outlived her usefulness as an aircraft carrier, was modified into a seaplane tender and later sunk by the Japanese in the Indian Ocean, February 1942.

                      Six Consolidated P2Y-1 seaplanes of Patrol Squadron 10, under the command of Lt. Commander K. McGinnis, are seen over Point Loma after leaving their North Island base for San Francisco in early January 1934. On January 10, they flew nonstop from San Francisco to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - 2,399 miles in 24 hours 56 minutes, faster than any previous passage and a record for a formation of C-class flying boats.Consolidated PBY Catalina

                      Consolidated PBY Catalina

                      With the development of the Catalina, the Navy flew many long-distance formation flights. Competition for their share of the War Department's budget meant getting the attention of the American public. This photograph shows VP-11F preparing for such a flight from NAS San Diego to Fleet Air Base Coco Solo in the Panama Canal Zone in December 1938.

                      Seen here, NAS San Diego's busy seaplane ramp is dominated by various models of early PBY Catalina flying boats in 1938. With the preservation of neutrality a major goal at the time, the navy had more PBY patrol planes in service than any other type. Visible in the photograph are aircraft from at least three squadrons.

                      Aerial view, 1939

                      By 1939, North Island was beginning to take on a different shape. Constant dredging of the bottom had added over 50 acres of land to the north and west sides. New seaplane ramps and hangers were built on the northern shoreline to accommodate the growing fleet of PBY patrol planes.

                      U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory (NRSL)

                      NRSL was established in 1940 to improve communications on ships operating at sea and to investigate the potential benefits of two emerging technologies: radar and sonar. Trained fighter interceptor pilots at North Island used the first operational radar set. NRSL later became the Navy Electronics Laboratory (NEL).

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