The story

Stockbridge - History

Stockbridge - History

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Stockbridge-Munsee History

The Stockbridge-Munsee are descended from Algonkian-speaking Indians, primarily Mohicans (also spelled Mahican or Mahikan, but not to be confused with the Mohegan Tribe of Connecticut) and Munsee Delawares, who migrated from New York, Pennsylvania, and New England to Wisconsin in the 1820s and 1830s. The Stockbridge originally lived in western Massachusetts and moved to north-central New York between 1783 and 1786 to form a new Christian community near the Oneida. Pressures from incoming White settlers caused them to consider alternative places to live.

Hendrick Aupaumut, a Stockbridge sachem (leader), realized the tribe needed to leave New York to evade the negative influences of settlers, and he chose to relocate the Stockbridge to Indiana near the Miami tribe. This plan was delayed by the War of 1812, during which Aupaumut served as an intermediary between the United States and Midwestern Indian tribes, the majority of which were allied to the British. Like many Stockbridge, Aupaumut was Christian and believed his tribe's best chance for survival depended on accepting Euro-American culture rather than resisting it.

Based on his Christian beliefs, Aupaumut rejected the religion of Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (also known as the Shawnee Prophet), both of whom preached resistance to American expansion and culture. He fought alongside the Americans during the American Revolution, and during the War of 1812 he attempted to convince Midwestern tribes to make peace with the United States. Aupaumut failed in this mission, and the war ended with a United States victory, paving the way for the Stockbridge removal to Indiana.

Treaties in Wisconsin

The first two Stockbridge families left New York for Indiana in 1817. The next year, another 80 tribal members, led by John Metoxen, joined them. Much to their chagrin, they found that the land they had intended to settle had been ceded by the Miami tribe and was to be sold to White settlers. Aupaumut's son, Solomon Hendrick, led a delegation to Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1821 to try to find a new place for their people to settle. Representatives from the Stockbridge, Brothertown, and Oneida tribes negotiated with the Menominee and Ho-Chunk tribes for a tract of land of about 860,000 acres for all three tribes. Another tract of 6.72 million acres was purchased the following year.

The Stockbridge in Indiana and New York began moving to Wisconsin, settling along the Fox River near present-day Kaukauna. A Christian mission was established there in 1825. By 1831, 225 Stockbridge had migrated to Wisconsin along with 100 people from the Munsee Delaware, a culturally and linguistically similar group. Their joint community became known as the Stockbridge-Munsee. Aupaumut died in 1830, and John Metoxen took his place as the tribal sachem.

In the meantime, the Menominee and Ho-Chunk disputed the validity of the treaties of 1821 and 1822, arguing they had been led to believe the three tribes would only live on the land, but in actuality the tribes had purchased the land. The Menominee and Ho-Chunk protested the treaties so profusely the federal government refused to ratify either one. An eight-year debate followed with the Menominee and Ho-Chunk on one side, and the Stockbridge-Munsee, Oneida, and Brothertown on the other.

The federal government finally mediated the dispute in 1831 and 1832 with a series of three treaties. As part of this compromise, the Stockbridge-Munsee would leave their settlement on the Fox River for new lands on the east shore of Lake Winnebago in present-day Calumet County. As compensation, the federal government reimbursed the Stockbridge-Munsee $25,000 for the improvements they had made to the Fox River settlement.

Internal Tribal Conflicts

The Stockbridge-Munsee moved to their new home on Lake Winnebago between 1832 and 1834 but soon conflicts arose over internal politics. John W. Quinney, a tribal leader, wrote a tribal constitution in 1837, replacing hereditary sachems with elected tribal officials. Not all tribal members favored this innovation. Dissension increased when the federal government ordered the Stockbridge-Munsee to move west of the Mississippi River to provide land for hordes of incoming White settlers. In 1838, the tribe sold about half of its reservation on Lake Winnebago to the United States, and the following year those who wanted to remove westward. About 170 tribal members left for Missouri. Those who left feared that staying in Wisconsin would jeopardize their tribal identity. In leaving, they felt they would retain their Indian culture and political autonomy.

Conditions in Missouri were difficult, and many Stockbridge-Munsee returned to Wisconsin. In 1843, Congress passed an act making all Stockbridge-Munsee United States citizens. This divided up reservation lands on Lake Winnebago -- which had been held communally -- among individual tribal members. Many Stockbridge-Munsee consented to this plan and became known as the Citizen Party. The opposition formed the Indian Party, under the leadership of John W. Quinney, with the intent to retain the federal status, culture, and political sovereignty of the tribe.

The Indian Party became distressed when Whites began buying up land granted to individual tribal members. Quinney lobbied to have the 1843 Act repealed, and Congress did so in 1846, but members of the Citizen Party refused to give up their American citizenship and stayed on their allotted lands along Lake Winnebago. The Indian Party wanted to relocate to the Crow Wing River in Minnesota, but negotiations with the government for a tract of land did not succeed. The Indian Party finally gained about 44,000 acres of the Menominee reservation in 1856, all in Shawano County. Additionally, the tribe was reimbursed approximately $78,000 to cover expenses in moving to their new home.

John Quinney played a leading role in gaining this home for his people, but did not live to see it. He was elected grand sachem of the tribe in 1852, but died in 1856. The Indian Party approved a new constitution in 1856 which, like Quinney's earlier constitution, vested tribal authority in an elected sachem. However, members of the Citizen Party continued to oppose the Indian Party, particularly concerning the sale of the old reservation at Lake Winnebago. Citizen Party members argued that they were cheated out of proceeds from this sale. To placate the Citizen Party, Congress authorized the sale of part of the new reservation near Shawano in 1871. Three quarters of the new reservation lands were sold, primarily to lumber companies.

Government Policies

Stockbridge-Munsee lands became further divided by the 1887 Dawes Act, which mandated that communally owned reservation lands be divided and owned individually by tribal members, with excess lands sold to public. Congress passed legislation in 1904, 1906, and 1910 that divided remaining Stockbridge-Munsee lands. The 1910 act also terminated the Stockbridge-Munsee's status as a federally recognized Indian tribe. By 1934, only 100 acres of the reservation remained in Indian ownership. Many could not afford to pay taxes associated with land titles, and this forced them to sell their property to non-Indian buyers such as lumber companies.

The Indian Reorganization Act in 1934 encouraged the re-establishment of tribal governments by tribes across the nation. The tribe could adopt a new constitution provided by the U.S. government or draft their own. Within the boundaries of their old reservation, the Stockbridge-Munsee had maintained a town government, and in 1931 this body created the Stockbridge-Munsee Business Committee. In 1938, the Stockbridge-Munsee drafted and approved a new constitution.

Under the leadership of Carl Miller, the Stockbridge-Munsee reorganized their tribal government and regained federal recognition. Using federal funds secured through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the tribe managed to buy back over 15,000 acres of land within their old reservation boundaries. In 1972, the federal government placed about 13,000 acres of the land into federal trust for the tribe. Currently, the Stockbridge-Munsee have about 1,500 enrolled tribal members, 900 of whom live on the reservation.

1. Start At The Must-See Norman Rockwell Museum

Want to see where Norman Rockwell lived and worked? The Norman Rockwell Museum in the center of Stockbridge ushers you into the artist’s world. You’ll see the studio where he worked, set up as it was in the 1960s. The last of about 20 studios he worked in, he called it “the best studio yet.”

The museum houses an extensive collection of his work. The Four Freedoms, Girl At Mirror, and The Marriage License, along with more than 360 other paintings, are here. You’ll see some of the covers for The Saturday Evening Post that Rockwell painted from 1916 into the 1960s. As he portrayed life through the World Wars, the Great Depression, civil rights struggles, and on into the Vietnam War era, his goal was not to shy away from the issues but to bring them to life. Sometimes he used humor, but a surprising number of his paintings show life in dark times.

You can download the museum’s app to follow along with the audio tour.

Outside, the museum grounds cover 36 acres. Wander as much as you’d like and take in the views of the Berkshires as well as the gardens. Note the apple trees that Rockwell planted for each of his grandchildren.

The Runaway Cafe serves lunch, or you can bring your own picnic. And if you’re an artist, you are welcome to paint or sketch here. The museum store stocks art kits.

Pro Tip: The usual advice is to allow 2 hours at this studio and museum. I found that I spent quite a long time gazing at these original works of art that I had grown up with they were like old friends. I’d recommend setting aside an entire morning or afternoon so that you aren’t rushed.

Stockbridge History

In the last issue of SU, we ran an image of Vice President Elect Kamala Harris in a dark suit briefcase in hand striding beside a white wall. On the wall is the silhouette of a little girl taken from a painting by Norman Rockwell.

The silhouette represented six-year-old Ruby Bridges breaking the color barrier by attending the all-white William Frantz Elementary School in Louisiana. From the first Black female in an all-white school to first female of color elected Vice President, the image was created by Bria Goeller who said, "We hoped it would inspire young women." The Goeller image went viral.

Sixty years earlier the Rockwell image became an iconic image of the civil rights movement. It was commissioned in 1960 by Look magazine and ran on the January 14, 1964 cover. Rockwell called it "The Problems We All Live With". It was painted in Stockbridge, Massachusetts and the model for six-year-old Ruby Bridges was eight-year-old Stockbridge resident Lynda Gunn. It is amazing how often pivotal moments in American history have a connection to this tiny Massachusetts village.

Never was Stockbridge more than a village. Founded in 1739, its population was virtually unchanged in its 281-year history. And yet&hellip

  • Three Supreme Court Justices: Stephen Johnson Field appointed by Abraham Lincoln David Josiah Brewer and Henry Billings appointed by Benjamin Harrison
  • The man who laid the transatlantic cable, Cyrus Field
  • The man who invented the electric trolley car, Stephen Field
  • President Thomas Jefferson's aide, Congressman Barnabas Bidwell
  • Vice President Aaron Burr's mother, Esther Edwards Burr

The first transatlantic cable was received in Stockbridge. It was sent from Cyrus Field to his brother Jonathan. The Hudson River School painters, Frederick Edwin Church, Asher B. Durand and George Inness painted the Housatonic River, Monument Mountain and Gould Meadows to name a few locations in Stockbridge.

While residing in Stockbridge:

  • Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote A Wonder Book for Boys and Girls, House of Seven Gables, and collected his first royalty check for The Scarlet Letter.
  • Frank Crowninshield and Norman Rockwell created the illustrations for Vanity Fair and the covers of the Saturday Evening Post.
  • Author Catharine Sedgwick created the images symbolic of American life in words as Rockwell did a century later in pictures.

The description of the village itself became synonymous with Americana. The history of Stockbridge was more than a picture or a paragraph, it was a window into who we were as Americans and who we wished to be. The people of Stockbridge contributed to the history of the nation.

Ours is a history worth preserving.

View near Stockbridge by Frederic Edwin Church

Welcome to the Town of Stockbridge

Resting on what is appropriately dubbed “the quiet side of the lake” (eastern shore of Lake Winnebago), the Town of Stockbridge in northeast Wisconsin is a peaceful collection of lakeside homes and rolling farms where the smiles come easy and the natural beauty never stops.

Lake Winnebago is the State’s largest inland lake and one of the most substantial freshwater lakes in the country. In addition to all the recreational activities associated with the lake, the Town of Stockbridge also boasts the beautiful Niagara Escarpment, a long “cliff” that stretches from New York State through Canada to Wisconsin before ending on the Wisconsin-Illinois border.

The Town also has a wealth of Native American history, taking its name from the Stockbridge Indians that settled this area. Today, hunting, fishing, biking, snowmobiling, horseback riding plus picturesque parks, a top flight Fire Department & First Responders Unit and quality schools help round out the community. We are a fifteen- to twenty-minute drive from all the amenities of Appleton to the north and Fond du Lac to the south. The Town of Stockbridge is truly a wonderful place to live, work and visit.

Stockbridge History&mdashThe Great Estate Bylaw

Stockbridge Selectman Mary Flynn brought us together with the advice: "before you touch a bylaw, clearly define the problem and make the minimum change possible to solve it. The people have to approve a bylaw, and they must understand exactly what they are being asked to approve what problem it will solve, and what impact it will have."

With that in mind, Mary Flynn, Jeff Parsons (a Berkshire Cottage owner and grandson of the builder) and I sat down with a few others to define the problem. The Berkshire Cottages were being destroyed. How do we save them?

We had starting points. Lenox was working on the same problem, and we knew what the most common adaptive reuses were: schools, private clubs, and inns. Plus one condo in Lenox and one in Stockbridge.

To make the solution Stockbridge-specific, we asked exactly what were we trying to save? For Stockbridge, it was always history and its physical characteristics. Therefore, the most important elements were the house itself, the visual relationship between it and the road, and maintaining low density. Those made Stockbridge look as it did made it so loved and livable.

The Great Estate bylaw made preservation of the Berkshire Cottage mandatory, controlled density with limited adaptive reuses, and preserved the Gilded Age Great Lawn &ndash that space between the Cottage and the road, that is, preserved an historic viewshed.

If I remember correctly, we appended a list. I think we used mine, but it is easy enough to compile, since by definition, a Berkshire Cottage was built before WWI.

The bylaw was enthusiastically approved. The Town realized then what we cannot afford to forget now: the economic base of Stockbridge is inexorably linked to preservation of our history, our open space and low density, and even Rockwell's vision of us.

The bylaw was short-lived. Te Marians of the Immaculate Conception, owners of Eden Hill, a Berkshire Cottage, challenged it. The bylaw was struck down. It is a matter of record and can be checked, but if memory serves, it was deemed spot zoning.

For a time, we had no Great Estate bylaw. Rumor had it that the bylaw was resurrected and rewritten for the benefit of Elm Court development. True or not, it became a part of Stockbridge Zoning Bylaws &ndash altered but not entirely. What seemed a victory for Elm Court was not acceptable to the next owner/developer of a Berkshire Cottage.

Next issue: Desisto and the current proposed bylaw.

Train tracks at Lower Bowker's Woods.

Stockbridge Genealogy (in Berkshire County, MA)

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Stockbridge are also found through the Berkshire County and Massachusetts pages.

Stockbridge Birth Records

Massachusetts, Birth Records, 1926-present Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics

Stockbridge Cemetery Records

Saint Joseph Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint Joseph Cemetery Billion Graves

Stockbridge Cemetery Billion Graves

Stockbridge Census Records

Federal Census of 1940, Stockbridge, Massachusetts LDS Genealogy

United States Federal Census, 1790-1940 Family Search

Stockbridge City Directories

Stockbridge Death Records

Massachusetts, Death Records, 1926-present Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics

Stockbridge Histories and Genealogies

Stockbridge Immigration Records

Stockbridge Land Records

Massachusetts Land Records Secretary of the Commonwealth

Stockbridge Map Records

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Stockbridge, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, Nov 1898 Library of Congress

Stockbridge Marriage Records

Massachusetts, Marriage Records, 1926-present Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics

Stockbridge Military Records

Stockbridge Minority Records

Stockbridge Miscellaneous Records

Stockbridge Newspapers and Obituaries

Berkshire Star 07/30/1808 to 01/03/1828 Genealogy Bank

Political Atlas 02/14/1807 to 07/22/1808 Genealogy Bank

Offline Newspapers for Stockbridge

According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.

Andrews's Western Star [Microform]. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1794-1797

Andrews's Western Star. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1794-1797

Berkshire Herald. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1814-1815

Berkshire Star. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1815-1828

Farmer's Herald. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1808-1814

Political Atlas. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1807-1808

Weekly Visitor. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1841-1844

Western Star [Microform]. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1789-1794

Western Star. (Stockbridge, Mass.) 1789-1794

Stockbridge Probate Records

Stockbridge School Records

Stockbridge Tax Records

Additions or corrections to this page? We welcome your suggestions through our Contact Us page

What Stockbridge family records will you find?

There are 16,000 census records available for the last name Stockbridge. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Stockbridge census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Stockbridge. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 2,000 military records available for the last name Stockbridge. For the veterans among your Stockbridge ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 16,000 census records available for the last name Stockbridge. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Stockbridge census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Stockbridge. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 2,000 military records available for the last name Stockbridge. For the veterans among your Stockbridge ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Thanks to the Madison County Historical Society for sharing the following facts from "Madison County Heritage, Number 36, 2010." Contact the Madison County Historical Society to obtain the full version.


Few symbols evoke a greater sense of America than the one-room schoolhouse. They are more than just a slice of Americana they serve as a reminder of the dramatic change that has taken place in U.S. education over the past 100 years. Education has long been considered the key to opportunity in this country. However, it was not always democratic. Beginning in the early 19th century, often referred to as "The Common School Period," education progressed from the domain of the affluent to universal education.

Guiding Principles

One of the guiding principles of public education was to enhance our democracy-to provide all citizens with the tools they would need to make informed decisions on the issues of the day-to be participants and not spectators in governance.

No Longer Needed

Today, many one-room schoolhouses have been turned into local museums. Others have been converted into dwellings by enterprising individuals. Some stand as ram-shackled structures-ignored-their purpose now forgotten. Most have long since ceased to exist, their presence no longer needed. Many students who attended these schools have become successful leaders, professionals, and inventors, and made major contributions to life as we know it today.

Parting Shot

In addition, a cute "parting shot" from an independent thinker of Stockbridge's one-room schoolhouse history: "Professor Wheeler was writing on the board. Suddenly a spit ball hit his head. He turned about and said, ‘Who shot that?' One of the boys said, ‘I didn't aim at you, but I missed Edwin's head.'" When we ignore the importance of the lessons forthcoming from a one-room schoolhouse, we lose a part of our heritage. We lose a part of our American identity.

Stockbridge - History

History of Stockbridge, NY

With the exception of the two towns of Oneida and Canastota, erected from Lenox in 1896, Stockbridge was the latest formed town in Madison county. It was set off from Vernon and Augusta in Oneida county, and Smithfield and Lenox in Madison county on May 20, 1836. Of course most of its early history is embodied in that of those towns. It lies on the east border of the county and is bounded on the north by Lenox and Vernon, on the east by Vernon and Augusta, on the south by Eaton and Madison, and on the west by Lenox and Smithfield. It contains nearly 19,000 acres, of which more than 15,000 are improved. The surface is high upland, broken by the beautiful valley of Oneida Creek, which extends north and south through the central part of the town, the hills on either side rising in continuous ranges to the height of from 500 to 800 feet. These hills, while steep in many places and difficult to work, are tillable to their summits. The valley broadens towards the north and becomes merged in the plain that characterizes the northern part of Lenox. The soil is gravelly and clayey loam, fertile in most parts. Hops have been in the past and still are in a comparative sense a large product. For a number of years it was second in the county in the quantity of this crop in recent years the production has somewhat declined, while more attention is given to dairying, in the products of which the town ranks high. Large quantities of milk are shipped to the eastern markets from the railroad stations at Munnsville and Valley Mills. There were twenty years ago five cheese factories in the town. Considerable attention is given in some localities to the growing of small fruits, and the apple crop in good years is large.

Oneida Creek is the only principal stream in Stockbridge, the main branch of which rises in Smithfield, traverses that town from northwest to southeast and enters Stockbridge in the southwest part, uniting with the direct branch south of the center of the town. As it flows down the west hill to the valley bottom it forms many falls and cascades, which add beauty to the scenery and in the past years turned many industrial wheels.

There are extensive deposits of limestone and gypsum in this town, both of which are quarried. The gypsum is found in the east ridge in the north part of the town, around Valley Mills the limestone in the. hills on both sides of the valley in the southern and central parts it has been quarried and burned at various points. A number of caves are open in the limestone, in some of which noxious gases exist, preventing their full exploration. In the bed of a small stream that flows down the east hill in the vicinity of Munnsville, were found years ago certain identations which local discussion characterized as the foot prints of animals and men. This theory is now dispelled.

The New York Ontario and Western Railroad extends along the slope of the east hill from north to south across the town, giving a fine view of the beautiful valley from its cars. There are stations at Munnsyule (now called Munns), at Valley Mills and at Pratts. The population of the town by census of 1892 was 1,704, about fifty less than the census of 1890 and about 300 less than the census of 1880.

The first settlers in Stockbridge were Nathan Edson and his sons, John, Barney and Calvin, who located in the southeast part in 1791. There were also four daughters in the family, one of whom was the wife of Robert Seaver. Descendants of the pioneer long remained in the town. Oliver Stewart came in a little later than Edson and located near him. Jonathan Snow also settled about the same time on the southeast corner lot of the town. William Sloan, George Bridge, and James Taft were pioneers of the last century, Sloan settling on a part of the Edson lot and Taft on part of the Oliver Stewart lot. Descendants of Mr. Bridge still live in town. Matthew Rankin, father of Jairus, who was the first physician in the town, and Aaron, a justice of the peace, settled early on a part of the Snow lot in the southeast corner of the town. Benajah House was a pioneer in the south part. Many persons leased lands of the Indians in this town and finally became permanent residents but most of them came in between about 1820 and 1830.

The first town meeting in Stockbridge was held at Munnsville on June 7, 1836, when the following officers were elected: Henry T. Sumner, supervisor Hiram Whedon, clerk Orin Wright, justice Elisha A. Clark, William Page and James Cowen, assessors John Hadcock and Thomas Wilson, poormasters Jesse Bridge, Luther Hathaway, and John Potter, commissioners of highways Orange R. Cook, Danforth Armour, and Albert G. Bartholomew, school commissioners William Temple, collector William Temple, Levi Johnson, and Jonathan Carter, constables Aaron Rankin, Ores Ranney, and Ephraim C. Brown, school inspectors Clark Buck, sealer of weights and measures.

These men were almost without exception prominent in the community and mostly members of leading families whose members had in earlier years aided materially in developing the town and founding its institutions.

Among the prominent and successful farmers in this town, many of whom have passed away, may be mentioned the following: McGee Wilson, deceased Williams Bridge, deceased Addison Snell, deceased Emerson Quackenbush, a large hop producer Waterman Simonds, who built the stone house on the east road south of Munnsville Captain Strong, who also built a stone house south of Munnsville and was a successful farmer Fred Marshall and J. W. Rockwell, both large hop producers Robert Clark, Samuel Spaulding, deceased Lewis Hinman, deceased Mackey Brothers, on the old Hinman farm Adelbert Pardee, George Miller, Warren J. Gilbert, Andrew Perry, Nathaniel Harrington, Rensselaer Coe, John L. Foster, Austin Carver, Elbert Foster, Amos Bridge, John Hadcock, all dead C. W. Dexter, Adelbert Ward, Orrin Porter, E. J. Spooner, Albert Lindsley, Charles Bunch, Norman Randall, Eri Day, and others who are living.

Following is a list of the supervisors of Stockbridge from the formation of the town to the present time, with the dates of their election:
1836-37, Henry T. Sumner 1S38, Asaph Pratt 1839, Elisha A. Clark 1840, Oren Wright 1841, Samuel W. Hull 1842, William Smith 1843-46, Ebenezer Porter 1847, Grove Hinman 1848, John McPherson 1849-50, John Potter 1851, Jonathan M. Forman 1852, Peter H. Smith 1853, William Stringer 1854, Abel H. Rawson 1855, James H. Gregg 1856, John Cleveland 1857, Jonathan M. Wilson 1858, Alvin Strong 1859-60, Jonathan M. Wilson 1861, Alvin Strong 1862, Jonathan M. Wilson 1863, James H. Gregg 1864, Jonathan M. Wilson 1865-68, Robert S. Barr 1869-70, Julius Treat 1871-72, A. Watson Armour 1873-75, William H. Stringer 1876-78, A. Watson Armour 1879, Robert S. Barr 1880-82, Grove S. Hinman 1883-95, George E. Woods 1896-98, J. E. Quackenbush.

The population of Stockbridge as shown by the census of different dates, has been as follows:

1840. 1845. 1850. 1855. 1860. 1865. 1870. 1880. 1890. 1892
2,320 2,215 2,081 2,052 2,068 1,925 1,847 2,023 1,845 1,704

Munnsville.- This is the largest of the three post villages in Stockbridge, and is situated in the southern part of the town in the Oneida valley. The first mercantile business here was the store of Asa Munn, who removed from Augusta in 1817 and soon afterward built a small store he also engaged in milling and distilling. Later merchants were:
Charles Chandler and his son Henry, Matthew Pratt, Hiram Whedon, William O. Sumner and Lorenzo Frost and James H. Lillibridge, who traded three years from 1870. George Colburn was then in trade about a year and sold to Clarence W. Dexter, a native and prominent citizen of this town. He enlarged the old store and has continued in business ever since. Nine years ago he took as a partner Clark W. Davis and the firm now is Dexter & Davis.

A. H. Owen began hardware trade in 1866 and has ever since continued, his son now being a partner. C. D. Jacobs was a former dealer in boots and shoes. George F. Griner is in the grocery and drug trade, succeeding William J. Lyndon, who began in 1876. Julius Treat was a physician in practice from 1851 to 1877, and began mercantile trade in 1878. W. T. Walker has a general store, succeeding F. L. Van Slyke. C. H. S. Lowe has a general store, succeeding his father, James Lowe, with whom he was a former partner Henry Freeman was a member of the firm at one period. Dr. S. P. Moore, who has practiced since 1873, also conducts a drug store. Mrs. George Cook keeps a variety store.

There are two hotels in the village- the Hotel Rightmyer, kept by Dennis Rightmyer, who took the house in 1874 the Central Hotel, conducted by Kelly & Burke, who succeeded Rudolph Zimmer, the first landlord.

What are now the works of the Munnsville Plow Co. were established in 1853 by Daniel Holmes, William Stringer, Solomon Van Brocklin and R. S. Barr under the name of Holmes, Stringer & Co., and so continued a few years in the manufacture of plows and other agricultural implements. After various changes in proprietorship, which have been described in detail in an earlier chapter, the company was incorporated in 1892 as the Munnsville Plow Company, with a capital of $50,000. J. E. Sperry is president W. R. Paul, vice-president W. F. Bridge, secretary and treasurer.

The grist mill is now operated by C. M. Merrill & Son, who in 1898 succeeded J. H. Merrill. Before that Jerome Merrill, father of J. H., operated it a number of years the mill was built in 1822. There was an early saw mill, but it long since disappeared to make room for a woolen mill built by Eben and Whedon Blakeman the woolen factory was not successful as a business. Henry Stewart also had an early wool carding mill which was used in recent years for a creamery. A Mr. Buck established a tannery at an early day, which was afterwards operated by James Hazeltirte and others before noticed. There are two blacksmiths in Munnsville, L. P. Van Slyke and Joseph Carlton. George Frost is operating an evaporator and a cider mill, and C. J. Bradner has a harness shop.

The first permanently located physician in this town was Jairus Rankin, who began practice about 1812. Later ones were Orange Russell Cook, Henry T. Sumner, Julius Treat, and William Taylor. The only present physician besides Dr. Miller is William H. Griffiths, who has practiced many years. R. H. Woolver is the only attorney in the town.

Stockbridge Village - This little village is beautifully situated on the lower slope of the west hill about a mile above Munnsville, and has a station nearly a mile distant across the valley. The place was early and long known as Knoxville, from Hermon Knox, who was the first merchant there. Other early merchants were David Wood, who bought out Knox Hiram Whedon, for a time a partner with Wood Amadeas Hinman, Andrew J. Hinman, Matthew Pratt and Carlos Atkins. James H. Lillibridge began trade in 1877, buying the business of W. J. Nash, and continued fifteen years. C. C. White carried on a cabinet making business a number of 'years and sold to C. E. Love in 1891, who still continues it in connection with undertaking. C. C. White now conducts a hardware trade. Charles White has a general store in which he succeeded S. M. Davidson in 1898 he is also postmaster. The only public house is the Hotel de Van Loon, which has been kept by David Van Loon since 1882. Wadsworth Lyman and Luther Elphick were former blacksmiths F. W. Cook began cabinet making in the village about fifty years ago and subsequently changed his business to wagon making, which he still continues.

The first physician in the place was Dr. Henry T. Sumner, who began practice soon after 1820 and continued until his death. Dr. Fayette F. Elphick succeeded and at the present time Dr. A. E. Broga is practicing.

Valley Mills is a hamlet in the northern part of the town, where a post-office was established in 1870, with J. D. Dunham postmaster. The grist mill there was built about 1848 by Ebenezer Ranney for a woolen factory and was operated as such by him a few years, when William Bridge and Nathan Hayes acquired the property since that time it has had several proprietors. It is now owned by C. W. Dexter, the Munnsville merchant, and the firm of Dexter & Davis have a branch store. A cider mill and plaster mill is connected with the grist mill.

When this town was formed it was divided into fifteen school districts, the same number in existence at the present time. There were then in the town 803 children between the ages of five and sixteen years. There is only one Union school in the town, which was organized at Munnsville in 1894 as district No 1. The present handsome building was erected in the same year at a cost of about $4,000, besides heating and furnishing. Frank M. Wiggins has been principal from the first and gives eminent satisfaction to the district. The school went under the Regents in 1896.

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