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Yarnall II DD-541 - History

Yarnall II DD-541 - History

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Yarnall II DD-541

Yarnall II(DD-541: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'5"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35.2 k. (tl.); cpl. 329; a. 5 5", 10 40mm., 7 20mm.,10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Fletcher)The second Yarnall (DD-541) was laid down on 6 December 1942 at San Francisco, Calif., by the Bethlehem Steel Co.; launched on 25 July 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Earl Groves; and commissioned on 30 December 1943, Comdr. Benjamin F. Tompkins in command.The destroyer spent the first two months of 1944 conducting her shakedown cruise and other training exercises in the San Diego operating area. She departed the west coast early in March and arrives at Oahu on the 19th. For the next 10 weeks, Yarnall carried out additional tactical exercises in the Hawaiian Islands.On 31 May, the warship stood out of Pearl Harbor with Task Group (TG) 52.17 and set a course- via Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands—for the invasion of Saipan in the Marianas. For that operation, Yarnall was assigned to Fire Support Group 1 under Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf. When her task group began its prelanding bombardment of Saipan on 14 June, Yarnall screened Cleveland (CL-55) and Montepelter (CL-67) and managed to add 148 rounds of 5-inch shell of her own to the effort. On 15 June, the day of the assault, she continued to screen Cleveland and, on the following day, carried out her first call fire mission—a dual-purpose action to help repulse an enemy counterattack and to destroy a bothersome pillbox.On the 17th, as a result of the submarine sightings of the Japanese fleet moving toward the Marianas, Yarnall and 20 other destroyers were detached from direct support for the invasion and ordered to screen the fast carriers. Yarnall joined TG 68.7, Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's hastily composed battle line, in preparation for what would be the Battle of the Philippine Sea. She tasted her first antiaircraft combat at 0515 on 19 June when a "Zeke" tried to bomb Stockham (DD-683) and then began a strafing run on Yarnall. Three guns of her main battery quickly took the intruder under fire and began scoring hits on him. As the plane closed the destroyer's port quarter, it exploded and splashed into the sea to give Yarnall her first victory over the enemy.About five hours after that attack, the ship received word of the first of the four large air raids launched by the Japanese Mobile Fleet to attempt to break up the American invasion force off Saipan. At about 1045, Yarnall and Stockham encountered the first carrierbased air of the battle when five "Val" dive bombers peeled off to attack the two picket destroyers. Yarnall's guns opened up on them and splashed one before the remaining four flew off to attack the larger ships of the American fleet. Word of the approach of the second raid arrived at 1110; and, 35 minutes later, about 20 enemy planes managed to break through the reception committee of F6F Hellcats vectored out to intercept them. Yarnall took seven of those planes under fire and splashed one. That was her last combat of the day. Though the Japanese mounted two more raids, they approached Task Force (TF) 58 from directions which did not bring them in close proximity to Yarnall.On the 20th, no enemy planes attacked TF 58. Instead, the Japanese began their retirement toward Japan. American carrier search planes found the enemy late in the day, and TF 58 launched air strikes from extreme range. After darkness fell that evening, Yarnall's searchlights helped to guide the returning airmen to their carriers. The following day, the destroyer returned to the coast of Saipan to resume call fire missions supporting the troops fighting ashore. She continued her labors in the Marianas until 8 July, when the warship left in the screen of a convoy bound for the Marshalls. After arriving at Eniwetok on the 12th, she took on ammunition, provisions, and fuel and headed back to the Marianas on the 15th. There, she resumed patrol and antisubmarine screening duties and kept at such tasks until the 25th when she moved inshore to provide gunfire support for the troops occupying Tinian.The warship alternated screening and bombardment missions in the Marianas until 16 August when she again sailed for the Marshalls. Yarnall remained at Eniwetok from 20 to 29 August. On the latter day, she left the anchorage in company with TG 38.2 for an aerial sweep of the Philippine Islands in preparation for the invasion of the archipelago at Leyte. Following those raids, the carriers and their escorts rested at Ulithi Atoll between 1 and 6 October.On the latter day, Yarnall sortied with the entire Fast Carrier Task Force for a three-day aerial sweep of Japanese air bases on Formosa. During that operation, Yarnall provided aircrew rescue services and performed antiaircraft and antisubmarine screening duties. During the first day of that attack, the destroyer fired on 15 enemy planes and suIashed two of them. The following evening, she barely evaded a bomb which exploded close astern. She emerged unscathed from another bombing attack on the 14th.Following the Formosa raid, Yarnalls unit steamed south to operate off Luzon. She screened the carriers while their planes suppressed Japanese land-based airpower in the vicinity during the landings at Leyte. During the three-phased Battle for Leyte Gulf which thwarted the Japanese attempt to break up the American liberation of Leyte, Yarnall continued to screen the carriers as they raced northward to destroy Admiral Ozawa's decoy force built around planeless aircraft carriers. After successfully completing that mission TF 38 made a fueling rendezvous on 30 and 31 October and then resumed its duty pounding enemy installations on Luzon.At the end of the first week in November, the carriersand their escorts once again retired to Ulithi. The destroyer returned to sea on 14 November to screen TF 38 during further aerial attacks on Japanese installations in the Philippines. On 23 November, she headed back to Ulithi with TG 38.1 for logistics. In December, she returned to the Philippines with TG 38.1 to support the landings on the island of Mindoro and to continue the pressure on Japanese air forces based on Luzon. During that mission, she successfully weathered the famous typhoon on 17 December 1944 which claimed destroyers Hull (DD-350), Monaghan (DD-354), and Spence (DD 512). She returned to Ulithi on 24 December and remained there until January 1945.On New Year's Day, TG 38.1 stood out of Ulithi to provide air support for landings on Luzon at Lingayen Gulf. The planes hit Formosa on the 3d and 4th, pounded airfields on Luzon on the 6th and 7th, and returned to Formosa installations on the day of the landings, 9 January. That night, Yarnall accompanied the fast carriers through Bashi Channel into the South China Sea to begin a series of raids on Japan's inner defense line. Unopposed by the Japanese Fleet, TF 38 sent planes against bases at Camranh Bay and Saigon in Indochina, then against Formosa on 15 January. Fighters attacked Amoy, Swatow, and Hon~ Kong in China as well as Hainan Island in the Gulf of Tonkin On the 16th, they returned to Hong Kong and Hainan for a repeat performance and for good measure made a sweep of Canton. The task force exited the South China Sea via Balintang Channel and then hit Formosa and the Nansei Shoto on 21 January. Okinawa felt the carriers' punch on the 22d; and, two days later, TF 38 set a course back to Ulithi.On 10 February, Yarnall left Ulithi with TF 38 to attack the Japanese home islands for the first time since the Halsey-Doolittle raid and to provide strategic cover for the assault on Iwo Jima. For two days, 16 and 17 February, the skies over Tokyo rained death and destruction. On the 18th, Yarnall steamed south with the carriers to lend the marines a hand during the Iwo Jima landings. While TF 38 planes supported the assualt, Yarnall protected their floating bases from enemy air and submarine attacks. She remained in the vicinity of the Volcano Islands until the 22d when she and the carriers again headed toward the Japanese home islands for another swipe at Tokyo on the 25th. Then, after rendevousing with TG 50.8, the logistics group, TF 38, sent its planes to strike Okinawa on 1 March.On 3 March, Yarnall received orders transferring her from TG 58.2 to TG 59.6 for a practice attack on the main body of TF 59. While closing the objective on the night of 4 and 5 March, she collided with Ringgold (DD-500). Ringgold suffered a sheared off bow while Yarnall also suffered one man killed and six others injured. Towed to Ulithi by Molala (ATF-106), she reached the anchorage on 7 March. On the 8th, her bow broke off and sank. While at Ulithi, she had a false bow fitted for the voyage back to the United States for permanent repairs. She stood out of Ulithi on 5 April and steamed via Pearl Harbor to the Mare Island Navy Yard where she underwent repairs until 2 July.The warship returned to Pearl Harbor in July and conducted training operations in the Hawaiian Islands through the end of the war. Two days after the cessation of hostilities, Yarnall set a course for Tokyo, Japan, to participate in the postwar occupation. She was present in Tokyo Bay on 2 September when Japanese officials signed the surrender document on board Missouri (BB-63) and remained in the Far East supporting minesweeping operations until the end of October. On the 31st, she put to sea and shaped a course for San Diego, Calif., where, though she remained in commission, she was placed in an inactive status. Berthed at San Diego with the Pacific Reserve Fleet, Yarnall was finally placed out of commission on 15 January 1947.The outbreak of the Korean conflict in June 1950 brought many ships out of the "mothball fleet." Yarnall was ordered back into active service on 31 August 1950, and she was recommissioned at San Diego on 28 February 1951. She reported for duty with the Pacific Fleet on 20 March and conducted shakedown training and other exercises along the west coast until mid-May. On 15 May, Yarnall departed San Diego for Japan. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, she arrived in Yokosuka on 7 June and, three days later, got underway for her first tour of combat duty in Korean waters. For the most part, Yarnall served in the screen of TF 77, the carrier task force, though on occasion she did close the coast of Korea to provide gunfire support for the United Nations troops operating ashore. Her first Korean War deployment was punctuated by periodic port calls, mostly at Yokosuka, but also at Okinawa and at Keelung, Taiwan. In August, she served briefly with the Taiwan Strait patrol before returning to the Korean combat zone in September.Her first Korean War deployment lasted until December. On 8 December, the destroyer departed Yokosuka and steamed via Midway and Pearl Harbor to San Diego where she arrived on the 21st. From there, she moved to Long Beach early in 1952 for an overhaul. The warship completed repairs early that summer and returned to San Die~o on 11 June. A month and a day later, she departed San Diego; set a course via Pearl Harbor and Midway for the western Pacific; and arrived in Yokosuka on 6 August. On the 8th, she again got underway and, after an overnight stop at Sasebo on 10 and 11 August, headed for the Korean operating area. Again, her duties consisted of screening TF 77 carriers and providing bombardment services, frequently at the besieged port city of Wonsan. As during the previous deployment, she alternated tours of duty in Korean waters with port calls at Japanese ports for repairs, upkeep, rest, and relaxation. Later, in November, she returned to the Taiwan Strait patrol before resuming her tours of duty with TF 77 and on the bombline. On 30 January 1953, she concluded her second Korean War deployment by departing Sasebo for the United States. Steaming via Midway and Pearl Harbor, Yarnall arrived in San Diego on 16 February.While Yarnall enjoyed her stateside rotation, hostilities in Korea ceased when an armistice was finally signed on 27 July 1953. The warship, however, continued to make annual deployments to the Far East and frequently operated in Korean waters with TF 77. She continued to alternate deployments to the Orient with periods of normal operations out of San Diego until September of 1958 when she was decommissioned.Berthed at Stockton, Calif., Yarnall remained inactive for almost a decade. On 10 June 1968, she was transferred, on a loan basis, to the Taiwanese Navy which she served as Kun Yang (DD-8). She was returned to the United States Navy in 1974 for disposal. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 25 January 1974, and she was retransferred back to Taiwan by sale. As of early 1980, Kun Yang remained active with the Taiwan Navy.Yarnall (DD-541) earned seven battle stars during World War II and two battle stars during the Korean conflict.

USS Yarnall (DD-541)

The second U.S. Navy ship to bear the name Yarnall was DD-541, a Fletcher (DD-445)-class destroyer commissioned on 30 December 1943. After shakedown and training exercises, she sailed for Oahu, arriving there on 19 March 1944.

During the invasion of Saipan, the Yarnall was assigned fire support duties and her group conducted prelanding bombardment beginning on 14 July. Several days after the initial assault, she also took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. On 19 June, the Yarnall was operating as part of Task Group 58.7 when she destroyed three attacking enemy aircraft during the famous "Marianas Turkey Shoot."

In October 1944, she participated in an aerial sweep off Formosa, destroying two Japanese planes. She next took part in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, during which she screened U.S. Navy aircraft carriers as they raced to destroy Admiral Ozawa's Japanese decoy force. On 17 December 1944, the Yarnall survived a terrible typhoon, which sank numerous other warships.

USS Yarnell DD-541 (1943-1974)

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This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Wickes Class Destroyer
    Keel Laid February 12 1918 - Launched June 19 1918

Stricken from Navy Register January 8 1941

Naval Covers

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4. Smallpox𠅊 European Disease Ravages the New World

Dr. Edward Jenner performing his first vaccination against smallpox on James Phipps, circa 1796.

DEA Picture Library/Getty Images

Smallpox was endemic to Europe, Asia and Arabia for centuries, a persistent menace that killed three out of ten people it infected and left the rest with pockmarked scars. But the death rate in the Old World paled in comparison to the devastation wrought on native populations in the New World when the smallpox virus arrived in the 15th century with the first European explorers.

The indigenous peoples of modern-day Mexico and the United States had zero natural immunity to smallpox and the virus cut them down by the tens of millions.

“There hasn’t been a kill off in human history to match what happened in the Americas� to 95 percent of the indigenous population wiped out over a century,” says Mockaitis. “Mexico goes from 11 million people pre-conquest to one million.”

Centuries later, smallpox became the first virus epidemic to be ended by a vaccine. In the late 18th-century, a British doctor named Edward Jenner discovered that milkmaids infected with a milder virus called cowpox seemed immune to smallpox. Jenner famously inoculated his gardener’s 8-year-old son with cowpox and then exposed him to the smallpox virus with no ill effect.

“[T]he annihilation of the smallpox, the most dreadful scourge of the human species, must be the final result of this practice,” wrote Jenner in 1801.

And he was right. It took nearly two more centuries, but in 1980 the World Health Organization announced that smallpox had been completely eradicated from the face of the Earth.

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Thomas Yarnall

Dr. Tom Yarnall (B.A. in Religion, Amherst College, 1983 MA., MPhil., and PhD in Religion, Columbia University, 2003) is an Associate Research Scholar and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Religion at Columbia.

Courses he has developed and regularly teaches include the lecture/survey course on the history, culture, philosophy, and practices of Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, as well as advanced seminars on Buddhist Philosophy, Buddhist Ethics, and Buddhist Contemplative Sciences (including Buddhist Tantra). Each course explores its subject matter not only within its relevant socio-historical contexts but also within the contexts of contemporary disciplines and discourses (including post-modern and post-structuralist methodologies Western traditions of philosophy, epistemology, ethics, and socio-political theories cognitive sciences psychology and so forth). Dr. Yarnall also teaches Tibetan and Sanskrit languages, and assists undergraduate and graduate students with advanced research skills, tools, and resources in all of the above areas.

As a researcher Dr. Yarnall works with the Columbia University Center for Buddhist Studies (CUCBS), serving as the Executive Editor (2003–present) for the two series of scholarly translations/studies entitled the Treasury of the Buddhist Sciences (Tibetan Tengyur texts and associated literature) and the Treasury of the Indic Sciences, copublished by CUCBS, the American Institute of Buddhist Studies (AIBS), and Tibet House US (THUS), and distributed by Columbia University Press (CUP, 2004–18) copublished by AIBS, CUCBS, THUS, and Wisdom Publications (WP, scholarly series), and distributed by WP (2018–present). To date he has edited and produced 29 titles within these series, with 6 more forthcoming in 2021–22, and has developed a comprehensive plan for ongoing future publications within these series. In a related capacity, Dr. Yarnall also has served as a principal organizer, steering committee member, and participant in numerous international conferences (in India, US, Canada, Taiwan, etc.) on topics involving methodological, theoretical, philological, technical, and practical issues pertaining to the translation and transmission of Buddhist texts and ideas.

Dr. Yarnall’s own scholarly research has focused on Mādhyamika philosophy, Buddhist ethics, and especially on Indian and Tibetan Tantric materials of the Unexcelled Yoga class. His study and translation of the creation stage chapters of Tsong Khapa’s Great Treatise on the Stages of Mantra (sngags rim chen mo) was published in the Treasury of the Buddhist Sciences series in 2013, and was a finalist for the Tsadra Foundation’s “Shantarakshita Award for Excellence in Translation” for books published 2012–15. His forthcoming book—under consideration for publication by Columbia University Press and by Wisdom Publications (scholarly series) in 2021—is entitled The Emptiness that is Form: The Nonconceptual Embodiment of Buddhahood. It contains a detailed analysis and study of the relationship between the view of emptiness and the practice of deity yoga in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Tantra, informed both by traditional Indian and Tibetan sources and perspectives as well as by a wide variety of contemporary disciplines and methodologies.

Mục lục

Yarnall được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Bethlehem Steel Co. ở San Francisco, California vào ngày 5 tháng 12 năm 1942. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 25 tháng 7 năm 1943 được đỡ đầu bởi bà Earl Groves và nhập biên chế vào ngày 30 tháng 12 năm 1943 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân Benjamin F. Tompkins.

Yarnall trải qua hai tháng đầu tiên của năm 1944 tiến hành chuyến đi chạy thử máy và các cuộc thực tập huấn luyện ngoài khơi San Diego, California. Nó rời vùng bờ Tây vào đầu tháng 3, và đi đến Oahu thuộc quần đảo Hawaii vào ngày 19 tháng 3. Trong mười tuần lễ tiếp theo, nó thực hành chiến thuật bổ sung tại vùng biển chung quanh quần đảo Hawaii.

Chiến dịch quần đảo Mariana Sửa đổi

Vào ngày 31 tháng 5, Yarnall khởi hành từ Trân Châu Cảng cùng Đội đặc nhiệm 52.17 trong chặng đường đi ngang qua Kwajalein thuộc quần đảo Marshall để tham gia việc chiếm đóng Saipan thuộc quần đảo Mariana. Trong chiến dịch này, nó được phân về Đội hỗ trợ hỏa lực 1 dưới quyền Chuẩn đô đốc Jesse B. Oldendorf và khi đội của nó tiến hành bắn phá chuẩn bị lên Saipan vào ngày 14 tháng 6, nó đã hộ tống cho các tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ USS Cleveland và USS Montpelier, đồng thời đóng góp 148 quả đạn pháo 5 inch vào nỗ lực bắn phá các mục tiêu. Đến ngày đổ bộ 15 tháng 6, nó tiếp tục hỗ trợ cho Cleveland, và sang ngày hôm sau thực hiện nhiệm vụ hỗ trợ hỏa lực theo yêu cầu lần đầu tiên, giúp đẩy lui một cuộc phản công của quân Nhật và phá hủy các công sự đối phương.

Do việc một tàu ngầm Hoa Kỳ phát hiện Hạm đội Liên hợp của Hải quân Nhật Bản đang tiến về hướng quần đảo Mariana vào ngày 17 tháng 6, Yarnall cùng 20 tàu khu trục khác được tách khỏi nhiệm vụ hỗ trợ đổ bộ trực tiếp, để hộ tống bảo vệ cho lực lượng đặc nhiệm tàu sân bay nhanh. Nó gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 58.7, một hàng thiết giáp hạm được cấp tốc tập trung dưới quyền Chuẩn đô đốc Willis A. Lee, để chuẩn bị cho cuộc đụng độ vốn sẽ trở thành Trận chiến biển Philippine. Nó khai hỏa dàn hỏa lực phòng không lúc 05 giờ 15 phút ngày 19 tháng 6, khi một máy bay tiêm kích Mitsubishi A6M Zero tìm cách ném bom vào tàu khu trục Stockham (DD-683) rồi càn quét bằng súng máy nhắm vào Yarnall. Ba khẩu pháo chính của con tàu đã bắn trúng đích đối phương, khiến nó nổ tung và rơi xuống mạn trái phía đuôi tàu.

Khoảng sáu giờ sau đợt tấn công này, Yarnall nhận được tin tức về đợt không kích đầu tiên trong số bốn đợt quy mô lớn, mà hạm đội Nhật Bản tung ra nhằm phá vỡ cuộc tấn công của Hoa Kỳ ngoài khơi Saipan. Đến khoảng 10 giờ 45 phút, YarnallStockham đụng độ với lực lượng xuất phát từ tàu sân bay đối phương, khi năm chiếc máy bay ném bom bổ nhào Aichi D3A tấn công hai chiếc tàu khu trục canh phòng. Các khẩu pháo của Yarnall nhắm vào chúng, bắn rơi một chiếc trước khi những chiếc còn lại bay đi nhắm vào các tàu chiến lớn hơn. Thông tin về đợt tấn công thứ hai đến lúc 11 giờ 10 phút, và 35 phút sau khoảng 20 máy bay đối phương tìm cách lọt qua được hàng rào phòng thủ tuần tra chiến đấu trên không của những chiếc F6F Hellcat, hướng đến họ. Yarnall nhắm vào bảy chiếc trong số chúng, bắn rơi một chiếc. Đó là hoạt động tác chiến cuối cùng trong ngày của nó và cho dù phía Nhật Bản tung ra thêm hai đợt không kích quy mô lớn khác, các hướng tiếp cận Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 58 của chúng không mang chúng vào tầm pháo phòng không của Yarnall.

Sang ngày 20 tháng 6, máy bay đối phương ngừng cuộc tấn công vào Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 58 Hạm đội Nhật Bản đã rút lui về hướng Nhật Bản. Máy bay trinh sát từ tàu sân bay Hoa Kỳ chỉ phát hiện ra điều này vào cuối ngày, và lực lượng đặc nhiệm đã tung ra cuộc tấn công ở khoảng cách cực xa, giới hạn tối đa mà máy bay có thể thực hiện. Khi số máy bay này quay về khi trời tối, Yarnall đã bật các đèn pha tìm kiếm giúp các phi công quay trở về tàu sân bay của mình. Sang ngày hôm sau, chiếc tàu khu trục quay trở lại bờ biển Saipan tiếp tục làm nhiệm vụ bắn pháo theo yêu cầu hỗ trợ cho binh lính chiến đấu trên bờ. Nó tiếp tục ở lại khu vực Mariana cho đến ngày 8 tháng 7, khi nó lên đường hộ tống một đoàn tàu hướng về quần đảo Marshall. Sau khi đi đến Eniwetok vào ngày 12 tháng 7, nó được tiếp liệu, bổ sung đạn dược và nhiên liệu rồi quay trở lại Mariana vào ngày 15 tháng 7. Tại đây nó đảm nhiệm tuần tra và bảo vệ chống tàu ngầm cho đến ngày 25 tháng 7, khi nó tiến sát bờ để bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho cuộc chiếm đóng Tinian.

Yarnall luân phiên các nhiệm vụ bảo vệ và bắn phá tại khu vực Mariana cho đến ngày 16 tháng 8, khi nó lên đường quay trở về quần đảo Marshall, và ở lại Eniwetok từ ngày 20 đến ngày 29 tháng 8. Nó khởi hành cùng Đội đặc nhiệm 38.2 cho một cuộc không kích càn quét quần đảo Philippine nhằm chuẩn bị cho cuộc đổ bộ lên Leyte. Sau đó các tàu sân bay và lực lượng hộ tống rút lui về đảo san hô Ulithi để nghỉ ngơi từ ngày 1 đến ngày 6 tháng 10.

Chiến dịch Philippines Sửa đổi

Yarnall khởi hành cùng toàn bộ lực lượng đặc nhiệm cho một đợt càn quét kéo dài ba này xuống các căn cứ không quân của Nhật Bản tại Đài Loan. Trong chiến dịch này, nó làm nhiệm vụ canh phòng những máy bay bị rơi, bảo vệ phòng không và chống tàu ngầm cho lực lượng đặc nhiệm. Trong ngày tấn công đầu tiên, nó đã nhắm bắn vào 15 máy bay đối phương tấn công, bắn rơi hai chiếc trong số đó. Đến chiều tối, nó né tránh được một quả bom ném suýt trúng phía đuôi tàu, và thoát được mà không bị hư hại trong một vụ ném bom khác vào ngày 14 tháng 10.

Sau đó, đơn vị của Yarnall đi về phía Nam để hoạt động ngoài khơi Luzon. Nó hộ tống các tàu sân bay khi máy bay của chúng áp chế không quân đặt căn cứ trên đất liền của Nhật Bản tại khu vực phụ cận trong khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ lên Leyte. Trong suốt trận Hải chiến vịnh Leyte vốn đã làm thất bại ý định phản công của quân Nhật nhắm vào lực lượng Hoa Kỳ, Yarnall tiếp tục hộ tống cho các tàu sân bay khi chúng băng lên phía Bắc tiêu diệt lực lượng làm mồi nhữ của Phó đô đốc Ozawa Jisaburo, hình thành chung quanh những tàu sân bay hầu như không còn máy bay. Sau khi hoàn thành nhiệm vụ, Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 được tiếp nhiên liệu ngoài biển trong các ngày 30-31 tháng 10, rồi tiếp tục không kích các căn cứ đối phương tại Luzon.

Sang đầu tháng 11, các tàu sân bay và lực lượng hộ tống rút lui về Ulithi. Các tàu khu trục lại ra khơi vào ngày 14 tháng 11 để hộ tống cho Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 cho các cuộc không kích khác xuống lực lượng Nhật Bản tại Philippines. Vào ngày 23 tháng 11, nó quay trở lại Ulithi cùng Đội đặc nhiệm 38.1 để được tiếp liệu. Sang tháng 12, nó quay trở lại Philippines cùng Đội đặc nhiệm 38.1 để hỗ trợ cho cuộc đổ bộ lên Mindoro, tiếp tục gây áp lực cho không quân Nhật đặt căn cứ tại Luzon. Trong đợt này, nó thoát được cơn bão Cobra vào ngày 17 tháng 12 vốn đã nhấn chìm các tàu khu trục Hull (DD-350), Monaghan (DD-354) và Spence (DD-512). Nó quay trở về Ulithi vào ngày 24 tháng 12 và ở lại đây cho đến tháng 1 năm 1945.

Vào ngày 1 tháng 1 năm 1945, Đội đặc nhiệm 38.1 rời Ulithi để hỗ trợ trên không cho cuộc đổ bộ lên vịnh Lingayen. Máy bay của đơn vị đã tấn công Đài Loan vào các ngày 3 và 4 tháng 1, ném bom các sân bay tại Luzon vào các ngày 6 và 7 tháng 1, rồi quay trở lại không kích Đài Loan vào đúng ngày đổ bộ 9 tháng 1. Đêm hôm đó, nó tháp tùng các tàu sân bay nhanh băng qua eo biển Bashi để tiến vào Biển Đông, bắt đầu một loạt các cuộc không kích vào phạm vi phòng thủ bên trong của Nhật Bản. Không bị Hạm đội Nhật Bản ngăn trở, Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 đã tung máy bay ra không kích các căn cứ đối phương tại Sài Gòn và vịnh Cam Ranh tại Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, rồi xuống Đài Loan vào ngày 15 tháng 1 cũng như xuống Hạ Môn, Sán Đầu và Hong Kong, cùng với đảo Hải Nam trong vịnh Bắc Bộ. Sang ngày 16 tháng 1, lực lượng quay trở lại Hong Kong và Hải Nam tiếp tục bắn phá, đồng thời càn quét Quảng Châu. Lực lượng rời Biển Đông qua eo biển Balintang, rồi tấn công Đài Loan và Nansei Shoto vào ngày 21 tháng 1. Okinawa là mục tiêu tiếp theo vào ngày 22 tháng 1, và Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 rút lui về Ulithi hai ngày sau đó.

Chiến dịch Iwo Jima và Okinawa Sửa đổi

Yarnall khởi hành từ Ulithi cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 vào ngày 10 tháng 2, tiến hành không kích lên các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản lần đầu tiên kể từ cuộc Không kích Doolittle huyền thoại năm 1942, nhằm hỗ trợ cho cuộc tấn công đổ bộ lên Iwo Jima. Trong hai ngày 16 và 17 tháng 2, máy bay từ tàu sân bay đã ném bom khu vực phụ cận Tokyo, và sang ngày 18 tháng 2, lực lượng quay xuống phía Nam để hỗ trợ cho binh lính Thủy quân Lục chiến đổ bộ lên Iwo Jima. Chiếc tàu khu trục làm nhiệm vụ bảo vệ các tàu sân bay khỏi các cuộc không kích và tấn công bằng tàu ngầm của đối phương, và tiếp tục ở lại khu vực quần đảo Volcano cho đến ngày 22 tháng 2, khi lực lượng đặc nhiệm đi lên phía Bắc, tiếp tục ném bom xuống khu vực Tokyo vào ngày 25 tháng 2. Sau khi gặp gỡ Đội đặc nhiệm 50.8, đơn vị hỗ trợ tiếp liệu, Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 lại tung máy bay của nó ra không kích Okinawa vào ngày 1 tháng 3.

Yarnall nhận lệnh được điều động từ Đội đặc nhiệm 58.2 sang Đội đặc nhiệm 59.6 vào ngày 3 tháng 3, và thực hành tấn công cùng thành phần chính của Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 59. Khi hoàn tất nhiệm vụ được giao trong đêm 4-5 tháng 3, nó gặp tai nạn va chạm với tàu khu trục Ringgold (DD-500), khiến Ringgold bị mất phần mũi tàu trong khi Yarnall chịu đựng một người thiệt mạng và sáu người khác bị thương. Nó được chiếc tàu kéo Molala (ATF-106) kéo quay về Ulithi, về đến nơi neo đậu vào ngày 7 tháng 3 và sang ngày 8 tháng 3, phần mũi tàu của nó bị rơi ra và đắm. Nó được lắp một mũi tàu giả tại Ulithi cho hành trình quay trở về Hoa Kỳ để được sửa chữa triệt để, rời Ulithi vào ngày 5 tháng 4, đi ngang qua Trân Châu Cảng và về đến Xưởng hải quân Mare Island, nơi nó được sửa chữa cho đến ngày 2 tháng 7.

Yarnall quay trở lại Trân Châu Cảng vào tháng 7, tiến hành các hoạt động huấn luyện tại khu vực quần đảo Hawaii cho đến khi chiến tranh kết thúc. Hai ngày sau khi Nhật Bản đầu hàng, nó lên đường đi Tokyo tham gia các hoạt động chiếm đóng sau chiến tranh, có mặt trong vịnh Tokyo vào ngày 2 tháng 9, khi buổi lễ ký kết chính thức văn kiện đầu hàng diễn ra bên trên thiết giáp hạm Missouri (BB-63). Con tàu tiếp tục ở lại khu vực Viễn Đông, hỗ trợ các hoạt động quét mìn cho đến cuối tháng 10 rồi lên đường vào ngày 31 tháng 10 cho hành trình quay trở về San Diego, California. Chiếc tàu khu trục ở lại đây trong tình trạng dự bị cho dù vẫn trong biên chế, cho đến khi được xuất biên chế vào ngày 15 tháng 1 năm 1947 và neo đậu tại San Diego cùng Hạm đội Dự bị Thái Bình Dương.

1950 - 1958 Sửa đổi

Sự kiện Chiến tranh Triều Tiên nổ ra vào tháng 6 năm 1950 khiến nhu cầu về tàu chiến của Hải quân Hoa Kỳ tăng lên đột ngột. Vì vậy Yarnall được kéo ra khỏi "hạm đội bỏ không" vào ngày 31 tháng 8 năm 1950 và được tái biên chế tại San Diego vào ngày 28 tháng 2 năm 1951. Nó trình diện để phục vụ cùng Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương vào ngày 20 tháng 3, tiến hành chạy thử máy huấn luyện và tập trận dọc theo vùng bờ Tây cho đến giữa tháng 5. Nó rời San Diego vào ngày 15 tháng 5 để đi sang Nhật Bản, đi ngang qua Trân Châu Cảng, và đi đến Yokosuka vào ngày 7 tháng 6. Nó lên đường ba ngày sau đó để đi sang khu vực chiến sự tại vùng biển ngoài khơi Triều Tiên, dành hầu hết thời gian để hộ tống bảo vệ Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 77, lực lượng tàu sân bay nhanh, nhưng thỉnh thoảng đã áp sát bờ biển để bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho lực lượng Liên Hiệp Quốc chiến đấu trên bờ. Nhiệm vụ bị ngắt quãng bởi những đợt nghỉ ngơi và tiếp liệu tại Yokosuka, Okinawa và Cơ Long, Đài Loan. Vào tháng 8, nó phục vụ một giai đoạn ngắn để tuần tra eo biển Đài Loan trước khi quay lại khu vực chiến sự Triều Tiên trong tháng 9.

Lượt phục vụ đầu tiên tại Triều Tiên kết thúc vào ngày 8 tháng 12, khi Yarnall rời Yokosuka, đi ngang qua đảo san hô Midway và Trân Châu Cảng để quay về San Diego, đến nơi vào ngày 21 tháng 12. Nó chuyển đến Xưởng hải quân Long Beach để đại tu vào đầu năm 1952, hoàn tất vào đầu mùa Hè, rồi quay lại San Diego vào ngày 11 tháng 6. Chiếc tàu khu trục lại lên đường đi sang khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương một tháng sau đó, đi ngang qua Trân Châu Cảng và Midway, đi đến Yokosuka vào ngày 6 tháng 8. Nó khởi hành vào ngày 8 tháng 8, ghé qua Sasebo vào các ngày 10 và 11 tháng 8, để rồi lại hướng sang Triều Tiên. Con tàu lại hoạt động cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 77, hộ tống tàu sân bay và tham gia bắn phá bờ biển, nhất là tại khu vực thành phố cảng Wonsan đang bị bao vây. Giống như lượt bố trí trước đây, nó luân phiên nhiệm vụ tại vùng biển Triều Tiên với những lượt ghé các cảng Nhật Bản để bảo trì, sửa chữa và nghỉ ngơi. Đến tháng 11, nó hoạt động tuần tra eo biển Đài Loan trước khi quay trở lại cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 77. Nó hoàn tất lượt phục vụ Triều Tiên thứ hai vào ngày 30 tháng 1 năm 1953, khởi hành từ Sasebo để quay về Hoa Kỳ ngang qua Midway và Trân Châu Cảng, và về đến San Diego vào ngày 16 tháng 2.

Đang khi Yarnall được luân phiên nghỉ ngơi, cuộc xung đột tạm thời kết thúc sau khi Thỏa thuận ngừng bắn Triều Tiên được ký kết vào ngày 27 tháng 7 năm 1953. Tuy nhiên con tàu vẫn được điều động hàng năm sang Viễn Đông, thường xuyên hoạt động cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 77 tại vùng biển Triều Tiên, xen kẻ với những hoạt động tại chỗ ngoài khơi San Diego cho đến tháng 9 năm 1958, khi con tàu được cho xuất biên chế, và neo đậu trong thành phần dự bị tại Stockton, California.

Phục vụ Hải quân Trung Hoa Dân Quốc Sửa đổi

Con tàu được chuyển cho chính phủ Trung Hoa dân quốc (Đài Loan) mượn vào ngày 10 tháng 6 năm 1968, và phục vụ cùng Hải quân Trung Hoa Dân quốc như là chiếc ROCN Kun Yang (DD-19). Nó được hoàn trả cho Hoa Kỳ trên danh nghĩa vào năm 1974, rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 25 tháng 1 năm 1974, rồi được bán lại cho Đài Loan. Kun Yang ngừng hoạt động vào ngày 16 tháng 10 năm 1999.

Yarnall được tặng thưởng bảy Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II, và được tặng thêm hai Ngôi sao Chiến trận khác khi phục vụ tại Triều Tiên.

Yarnall II DD-541 - History

2. To describe the greatness of his depravity does not lie within the plan of the present work. As there are many indeed that have recorded his history in most accurate narratives, [536] every one may at his pleasure learn from them the coarseness of the man's extraordinary madness, under the influence of which, after he had accomplished the destruction of so many myriads without any reason, he ran into such blood-guiltiness that he did not spare even his nearest relatives and dearest friends, but destroyed his mother and his brothers and his wife, [537] with very many others of his own family as he would private and public enemies, with various kinds of deaths.

3. But with all these things this particular in the catalogue of his crimes was still wanting, that he was the first of the emperors who showed himself an enemy of the divine religion.

4. The Roman Tertullian is likewise a witness of this. He writes as follows: [538] "Examine your records. There you will find that Nero was the first that persecuted this doctrine, [539] particularly then when after subduing all the east, he exercised his cruelty against all at Rome. [540] We glory in having such a man the leader in our punishment. For whoever knows him can understand that nothing was condemned by Nero unless it was something of great excellence."

5. Thus publicly announcing himself as the first among God's chief enemies, he was led on to the slaughter of the apostles. It is, therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, [541] and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. [542] This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day.

6. It is confirmed likewise by Caius, [543] a member of the Church, [544] who arose [545] under Zephyrinus, [546] bishop of Rome. He, in a published disputation with Proclus, [547] the leader of the Phrygian heresy, [548] speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid:

7. "But [549] I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican [550] or to the Ostian way, [551] you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church." [552]

8. And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, [553] in his epistle to the Romans, [554] in the following words: "You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. [555] And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time." [556] I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed. Footnotes:

[536] Tacitus (Ann. XIII.-XVI.), Suetonius (Nero), and Dion Cassius (LXI.-LXIII.).

[537] Nero's mother, Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus and of Agrippina the elder, was assassinated at Nero's command in 60 a.d. in her villa on Lake Lucrine, after an unsuccessful attempt to drown her in a boat so constructed as to break to pieces while she was sailing in it on the lake. His younger brother Britannicus was poisoned by his order at a banquet in 55 a.d. His first wife Octavia was divorced in order that he might marry Poppæa, the wife of his friend Otho, and was afterward put to death. Poppæa herself died from the effects of a kick given her by Nero while she was with child.

[539] We learn from Tacitus, Ann. XV. 39, that Nero was suspected to be the author of the great Roman conflagration, which took place in 64 a.d. (Pliny, H. N. XVII. I, Suetonius, 38, and Dion Cassius, LXII. 18, state directly that he was the author of it), and that to avert this suspicion from himself he accused the Christians of the deed, and the terrible Neronian persecution which Tacitus describes so fully was the result. Gibbon, and in recent times especially Schiller (Geschichte der Römischen Kaiserzeit unter der Regierung des Nero, p. 584 sqq.), have maintained that Tacitus was mistaken in calling this a persecution of Christians, which was rather a persecution of the Jews as a whole. But we have no reason for impeaching Tacitus' accuracy in this case, especially since we remember that the Jews enjoyed favor with Nero through his wife Poppæa. What is very significant, Josephus is entirely silent in regard to a persecution of his countrymen under Nero. We may assume as probable (with Ewald and Renan) that it was through the suggestion of the Jews that Nero's attention was drawn to the Christians, and he was led to throw the guilt upon them, as a people whose habits would best give countenance to such a suspicion, and most easily excite the rage of the populace against them. This was not a persecution of the Christians in the strict sense, that is, it was not aimed against their religion as such and yet it assumed such proportions and was attended with such horrors that it always lived in the memory of the Church as the first and one of the most awful of a long line of persecutions instituted against them by imperial Rome, and it revealed to them the essential conflict which existed between Rome as it then was and Christianity.

[540] The Greek translator of Tertullian's Apology, whoever he may have been (certainly not Eusebius himself see chap. 2, note 9, above), being ignorant of the Latin idiom cum maxime, has made very bad work of this sentence, and has utterly destroyed the sense of the original, which runs as follows: illic reperietis primum Neronem in hanc sectam cum maxime Romæ orientem Cæsariano gladio ferocisse ("There you will find that Nero was the first to assail with the imperial sword the Christian sect, which was then especially flourishing in Rome"). The Greek translation reads: ekei heuresete proton Nerona touto to dogma, henika m?lista en Rome ten anatolen pasan hupot?xas omos en eis p?ntas, dioxonta, in the rendering of which I have followed Crusè, who has reproduced the idea of the Greek translator with as much fidelity as the sentence will allow. The German translators, Stroth and Closs, render the sentence directly from the original Latin, and thus preserve the meaning of Tertullian, which is, of course, what the Greek translator intended to reproduce. I have not, however, felt at liberty in the present case to follow their example.

[541] This tradition, that Paul suffered martyrdom in Rome, is early and universal, and disputed by no counter-tradition and may be accepted as the one certain historical fact known about Paul outside of the New Testament accounts. Clement (Ad. Cor. chap. 5) is the first to mention the death of Paul, and seems to imply, though he does not directly state, that his death took place in Rome during the persecution of Nero. Caius (quoted below, 7), a writer of the first quarter of the third century, is another witness to his death in Rome, as is also Dionysius of Corinth (quoted below, 8) of the second century. Origen (quoted by Euseb. III. 1) states that he was martyred in Rome under Nero. Tertullian (at the end of the second century), in his De præscriptione Hær. chap. 36, is still more distinct, recording that Paul was beheaded in Rome. Eusebius and Jerome accept this tradition unhesitatingly, and we may do likewise. As a Roman citizen, we should expect him to meet death by the sword.

[542] The tradition that Peter suffered martyrdom in Rome is as old and as universal as that in regard to Paul, but owing to a great amount of falsehood which became mixed with the original tradition by the end of the second century the whole has been rejected as untrue by some modern critics, who go so far as to deny that Peter was ever at Rome. (See especially Lipsius' Die Quellen der römischen Petrus-Sage, Kiel, 1872 a summary of his view is given by Jackson in the Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review, 1876, p. 265 sq. In Lipsius' latest work upon this subject, Die Acta Pauli und Petri, 1887, he makes important concessions.) The tradition is, however, too strong to be set aside, and there is absolutely no trace of any conflicting tradition. We may therefore assume it as overwhelmingly probable that Peter was in Rome and suffered martyrdom there. His martyrdom is plainly referred to in John 21:10, though the place of it is not given. The first extra-biblical witness to it is Clement of Rome. He also leaves the place of the martyrdom unspecified (Ad Cor. 5), but he evidently assumes the place as well known, and indeed it is impossible that the early Church could have known of the death of Peter and Paul without knowing where they died, and there is in neither case a single opposing tradition. Ignatius (Ad Rom. chap. 4) connects Paul and Peter in an especial way with the Roman Church, which seems plainly to imply that Peter had been in Rome. Phlegon (supposed to be the Emperor Hadrian writing under the name of a favorite slave) is said by Origen (Contra Celsum, II. 14) to have confused Jesus and Peter in his Chronicles. This is very significant as implying that Peter must have been well known in Rome. Dionysius, quoted below, distinctly states that Peter labored in Rome, and Caius is a witness for it. So Irenæus, Clement, Tertullian, and later Fathers without a dissenting voice. The first to mention Peter's death by crucifixion (unless John 21:18 be supposed to imply it) is Tertullian (De Præscrip. Hær. chap. 36), but he mentions it as a fact already known, and tradition since his time is so unanimous in regard to it that we may consider it in the highest degree probable. On the tradition reported by Origen, that Peter was crucified head downward, see below, Bk. III. chap. 1, where Origen is quoted by Eusebius.

[543] The history of Caius is veiled in obscurity. All that we know of him is that he was a very learned ecclesiastical writer, who at the beginning of the third century held a disputation with Proclus in Rome (cf. Bk. VI. chap. 20, below). The accounts of him given by Jerome, Theodoret, and Nicephorus are drawn from Eusebius and furnish us no new data. Photius, however (Bibl. XLVIII.), reports that Caius was said to have been a presbyter of the Roman Church during the episcopates of Victor and Zephyrinus, and to have been elected "Bishop of the Gentiles," and hence he is commonly spoken of as a presbyter of the Roman Church, though the tradition rests certainly upon a very slender foundation, as Photius lived some six hundred years after Caius, and is the first to mention the fact. Photius also, although with hesitation, ascribes to Caius a work On the Cause of the Universe, and one called The Labyrinth, and another Against the Heresy of Artemon (see below, Bk. V. chap. 28, note 1). The first of these (and by some the last also), is now commonly ascribed to Hippolytus. Though the second may have been written by Caius it is no longer extant, and hence all that we have of his writings are the fragments of the Dialogue with Proclus preserved by Eusebius in this chapter and in Bk. III. chaps. 28, 31. The absence of any notice of the personal activity of so distinguished a writer has led some critics (e.g. Salmon in Smith and Wace, I. p. 386, who refers to Lightfoot, Journal of Philology, I. 98, as holding the same view) to assume the identity of Caius and Hippolytus, supposing that Hippolytus in the Dialogue with Proclus styled himself simply by his prænomen Caius and that thus as the book fell into the hands of strangers the tradition arose of a writer Caius who in reality never had a separate existence. This theory is ingenious, and in many respects plausible, and certainly cannot be disproved (owing chiefly to our lack of knowledge about Caius), and yet in the absence of any proof that Hippolytus actually bore the prænomen Caius it can be regarded as no more than a bare hypothesis. The two are distinguished by Eusebius and by all the writers who mention them. On Caius' attitude toward the Apocalypse, see Bk. III. chap. 28, note 4 and on his opinion in regard to the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews, see Bk. VI. chap. 20, and Bk. III. chap. 3, note 17. The fragments of Caius (including fragments from the Little Labyrinth, mentioned above) are given with annotations in Routh's Rel. Sacræ, II. 125-158 and in translation (with the addition of the Muratorian Fragment, wrongly ascribed to Caius by its discoverer) in the Ante-Nicene Fathers, V. 599-604. See also the article of Salmon in Smith and Wace, of Harnack, in Herzog (2d ed.), and Schaff's Ch. Hist. II. p. 775 sqq.

[545] gegonos. Crusè translates "born" but Eusebius cannot have meant that, for in Bk. VI. chap. 20 he tells us that Caius' disputation with Proclus was held during the episcopate of Zephyrinus. He used gegonos, therefore, as to indicate that at that time he came into public notice, as we use the word "arose."

[546] On Zephyrinus, see below, Bk. V. chap. 28, 7.

[547] This Proclus probably introduced Montanism into Rome at the beginning of the third century. According to Pseudo-Tertullian (Adv. omnes Hær. chap. 7) he was a leader of one division of the Montanists, the other division being composed of followers of Æschines. He is probably to be identified with the Proculus noster, classed by Tertullian, in Adv. Val. chap. 5, with Justin Martyr, Miltiades, and Irenæus as a successful opponent of heresy.

[548] The sect of the Montanists. Called the "Phrygian heresy," from the fact that it took its rise in Phrygia. Upon Montanism, see below, Bk. IV. chap. 27, and especially Bk. V. chap. 16 sqq.

[549] The de here makes it probable that Caius, in reply to certain claims of Proclus, was asserting over against him the ability of the Roman church to exhibit the true trophies of the greatest of all the apostles. And what these claims of Proclus were can perhaps be gathered from his words, quoted by Eusebius in Bk. III. chap. 31, 4, in which Philip and his daughters are said to have been buried in Hierapolis. That these two sentences were closely connected in the original is quite possible.

[550] According to an ancient tradition, Peter was crucified upon the hill of Janiculum, near the Vatican, where the Church of San Pietro in Montorio now stands, and the hole in which his cross stood is still shown to the trustful visitor. A more probable tradition makes the scene of execution the Vatican hill, where Nero's circus was, and where the persecution took place. Baronius makes the whole ridge on the right bank of the Tiber one hill, and thus reconciles the two traditions. In the fourth century the remains of Peter were transferred from the Catacombs of San Sebastiano (where they are said to have been interred in 258 a.d.) to the Basilica of St. Peter, which occupied the sight of the present basilica on the Vatican.

[551] Paul was beheaded, according to tradition, on the Ostian way, at the spot now occupied by the Abbey of the Three Fountains. The fountains, which are said to have sprung up at the spots where Paul's head struck the ground three times after the decapitation, are still shown, as also the pillar to which he is supposed to have been bound! In the fourth century, at the same time that Peter's remains were transferred to the Vatican, Paul's remains are said to have been buried in the Basilica of St. Paul, which occupied the site now marked by the church of San Paolo fuori le mura. There is nothing improbable in the traditions as to the spot where Paul and Peter met their death. They are as old as the second century and while they cannot be accepted as indisputably true (since there is always a tendency to fix the deathplace of a great man even if it is not known), yet on the other hand if Peter and Paul were martyred in Rome, it is hardly possible that the place of their death and burial could have been forgotten by the Roman church itself within a century and a half.

[552] Neither Paul nor Peter founded the Roman church in the strict sense, for there was a congregation of believers there even before Paul came to Rome, as his Epistle to the Romans shows, and Peter cannot have reached there until some time after Paul. It was, however, a very early fiction that Paul and Peter together founded the church in that city.

[553] On Dionysius of Corinth, see below, Bk. IV. chap. 23.

[554] Another quotation from this epistle is given in Bk. IV. chap. 23. The fragments are discussed by Routh, Rel. Sac. I. 179 sq.

[555] Whatever may be the truth of Dionysius' report as to Peter's martyrdom at Rome, he is almost certainly in error in speaking as he does of Peter's work in Corinth. It is difficult, to be sure, to dispose of so direct and early a tradition, but it is still more difficult to accept it. The statement that Paul and Peter together planted the Corinthian church is certainly an error, as we know that it was Paul's own church, founded by him alone. The so-called Cephas party, mentioned in 1 Corinthians 1. is perhaps easiest explained by the previous presence and activity of Peter in Corinth, but this is by no means necessary, and the absence of any reference to the fact in the two epistles of Paul renders it almost absolutely impossible. It is barely possible, though by no means probable, that Peter visited Corinth on his way to Rome (assuming the Roman journey) and that thus, although the church had already been founded many years, he became connected in tradition with its early days, and finally with its origination. But it is more probable that the tradition is wholly in error and arose, as Neander suggests, partly from the mention of Peter in 1 Corinthians 1. partly from the natural desire to ascribe the origin of this great apostolic church to the two leading apostles, to whom in like manner the founding of the Roman church was ascribed. It is significant that this tradition is recorded only by a Corinthian, who of course had every inducement to accept such a report, and to repeat it in comparing his own church with the central church of Christendom. We find no mention of the tradition in later writers, so far as I am aware.

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  1. Zulkigul

    This is a colossus)

  2. Joed

    Excuse the question is far away

  3. Hermes

    .. Seldom.. It is possible to tell, this exception :)

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