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Medieval society was hierarchical; social mobility was virtually nonexistent. Some historians often divide this society into three orders: that of the clergy; that of warriors and that of peasants.
The clergy had to take care of the spiritual salvation of all; to warriors, to watch over safety; and to the servants, to do the work in the fiefs.
In the medieval world, the social position of individuals was defined by the ownership or ownership of land, the main expression of wealth of that period.
The feudal Lord had the legal possession of the land, the political, military, juridical and even religious power, whether he was a priest, bishop or abbot. The servants did not own the land and were bound to it by a series of obligations owed to the lord and the church. Although they could not be sold, as was the case with slaves in the Old World, they could not leave the land without their permission.
There were also the villains. They were usually descendants of small Roman owners who, unable to defend their property, handed them over to a lord in exchange for protection.
From this origin, they received different treatment, with greater privileges and less duties than servants. There were finally the ministerial, the feudal lord's officials charged with collecting taxes.
Servants - The Land Workers
The servant was obliged to work in the master's land for three days a week. In addition, he had to hand over part of what he produced for his own livelihood.
Work on your land was a priority: it had to be prepared, sown and reaped first. Only after taking care of the master's land could the servant devote himself to his crops.
Servants working in a medieval fiefdom
The boundary of all these rules between the feudal lord and the servant was very well defined. Among the obligations of the servants were:
- The hoist, tax paid on production in the servile meek;
- The corvee, compulsory labor in manor reserves;
- at banalities, tax paid for the use of facilities belonging to you, such as oven and mill.
The Knights they were nobles who engaged in war. Loyalty to his lord and courage represented the chief virtues of a knight.
For a long time, to be a knight, it was enough to have a horse and a sword. In exchange for military service to a lord, the knight received his fiefdom, where he raised a fortress. Little by little, however, the demands to become a knight became more stringent: in addition to defending his fiefdom and that of his lord, he should profess the Catholic faith and honor women.
The young nobleman began his apprenticeship at the age of seven, serving as a page at a master's house, where he learned horse riding and weapon handling. At fourteen, he became a knight's squire, spending at least his service dealing with his horse and his weapons, while learning from him the arts of combat.
He took part in races, wrestling, and fencing. To prepare for tournaments and fighting, I learned how to run the yardIt was about galloping at a great speed towards a wooden doll and sticking the spear between its eyes. The doll was equipped with an arm and mounted on an iron pin. Who did not hit the target with the spear, made the doll spin; As it turned, the puppet's arm tapped the knight's back.
After the time of learning, if the young man was considered prepared and worthy, he was ready to be knighted. (link to the ten commandments of the knight READY)